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I •J^Cvl^l/ 'VL 't* V-^'i V_-L^U J^> 



woman'5 institutl 
Library of Cooklry 




50UP 

MLAT 
POULTRY AND GAML 
FI5H AND 5HLLL FI5H 



WOMAN'S INSTITUTE 

OF DOME.5TIC ARTS AND 5CILNCL5. Inc. 

SCRANTON. PA. 

1 92 J 









vol. 3 



Soup: Copyright, 1918, by International Educational Publishing Company. 

Meat, Parts 1 and 2: Copyright, 1918, by International Educational Publishing 
Company. 

Poultry and Game: Copyright, 1918, by International Educational Publishing Com- 
pany. 

Fish and Shell Fish: Copyright, 1918, by International Educational Publishing 
Company. 

Copyright in Great Britain 



All rights reserved 



•Press of 

International Textbook Company 

Scranton, Pa. 



PRLFACL 



This volume, which is the third of the Woman's Institute Library 
of Cookery, inckides soups and the high-protein foods, meat, poultry, 
game, and fish. It therefore contains information that is of interest 
to every housewife, for these foods occupy an important place in 
the majority of meals. 

In her study of Soup, she will come to a thorough appreciation of 
the place that soup occupies in the meal, its chief purposes, and its 
economic value. All the different kinds of soups are classified and 
discussed, recipes for making them, as well as the stocks used in 
their preparation, receiving the necessary attention. The correct 
serving of soup is not overlooked ; nor are the accompaniments and 
garnishes so often required to make the soup course of the meal an 
attractive one. 

In Meat, Parts 1 and 2, are described the various cuts of the 
different kinds of meat — beef, veal, lamb, mutton, and pork — and 
the part of the animal from which they are obtained, the way in 
which to judge a good piece of meat by its appearance, and what 
to do with it from the time it is purchased until all of it is used. 
All the methods applicable to the cooking of meats are emphasized 
in this section. Supplementing the text are numerous illustrations 
showing the ways in which meat cuts are obtained. Besides, many 
of them are so reproduced that actual cuts of meat may be readily 
recognized. Equipped with this knowledge, the housewife need give 
no concern to the selection, care, and cooking of every variety of 
meat. 

In Poultry and Game, the selection and preparation of all kinds of 
poultry receive attention. While such food is somewhat of a luxury 
in a great many homes, it helps to relieve the monotony of the 
usual protein foods, and it often supplies just what is desired for 
special occasions. Familiarity with poultry and game is a decided 
asset to any housewife, and success with their cooking and serving is 



iv PREFACE 

assured through a study of this text, for every step in their prepara- 
tion is clearly explained and illustrated. 

In Fish and Shell Fish, the other high-protein food is treated ni 
full as to its composition, food value, purchase, care, and preparation. 
Such interesting processes as the boning, skinning, and filleting of 
fish are not only carefully explained but clearly illustrated. In addi- 
tion to recipes for fresh, salt, smoked, and canned fish are given 
directions for the preparation of all edible shell fish and recipes for 
the various stuffings and sauces served with fish. 

Too much cannot be said about the importance of the subjects 
covered in this volume and the necessity for a thorough understand- 
ing of them on the part of every housewife. Indeed, a mastery of 
them will mean for her an acquaintance with the main part of the 
meal, and when she knows how to prepare these foods, the other 
dishes will prove a simple matter. 



CONTLNT5 



Soup Section Page 

Value of Soup 9 1 

Classification of Soups 9 3 

Uses and Varieties of Soup Stock 9 5 

The Stock Pot 9 7 

Principal Ingredients in Soup 9 9 

Processes Involved in Making Stock 9 11 

Serving Soup 9 16 

Recipes for Soup and Soup Accompaniments. ... 9 18 

Stocks and Clear Soups 9 19 

Heavy Thick Soups 9 21 

Cream Soups 9 25 

Purees 9 29 

Chowders 9 30 

Soup Accompaniments and Garnishes 9 31 

Meat 

Value of Meat as Food 10 1 

Structure and Composition of Meat 10 3 

Purchase and Care of Meat 10 8 

Purposes of Cooking Meat 10 11 

Methods of Cooking Meat 10 11 

Time Required for Cooking Meat 10 15 

Beef — General Characteristics 10 17 

Cuts of Beef 10 18 

Steaks and Their Preparation 10 22 

Roasts and Their Preparation 10 31 

Preparation of Stews and Corned Beef 10 38 

Beef Organs and Their Preparation 10 42 

V 



CONTENTS 



Meat — Continued Section Page 

Making Gravy 10 44 

Trying Out Suet and Other l^^ats 10 44 

Prepaiati(jn of Left-Over Beef 10 45 

Veal 11 1 

Cuts of Veal and Their Uses 11 2 

Veal Cuts and Their Preparation 11 4 

Veal Organs and Their Preparation 11 9 

Preparation of Left-Over Veal 11 10 

Mutton and Lamb- — ^Comparison 11 12 

Cuts of Mutton and Laml) 11 15 

Preparation of J^oasts, Chops, and Stews 11 17 

Preparation of Left-Over Lrnnl) and Mutton.... 11 21 

Pork 11 23 

Cuts of Pork 11 24 

Fresh Pork and Its Preparation 11 29 

Cured Pork and Its Preparation 11 32 

Preparation of Left-Over Pork 11 37 

Serving and Carving of Meat 11 38 

Sausages and Meat Preparations 11 39 

Principles of Deep-Fat Frying 11 40 

Application of Deep-Fat Frying 11 41 

Timhale ( Vises 11 44 



Poultry axd Gamk 

Poultry as a T'ood. 



12 1 

Selection of Poultry 12 3 

Selection of Chicken 12 6 

Selection of Poultry Other 'J'han Chicken 12 9 

Composition of Poultry 12 12 

Preparation of Chicken for Cooking .12 13 

Preparation of Poultry Other Than Chicken for 

Cooking 12 23 

Cooking of Poultry 12 24 

Stuffing for Roast Poultry 12 S3 

Boned Chicken 12 35 

Dishes from Left-Over Poultry 12 46 

Serving and Carving of Poultry 12 49 

Game 12 52 

Recipes for Game 12 53 



CONTENTS vii 

Fish and Shell Fish Section Page 

Fish in the Diet 13 1 

Composition and Food Vahie of Fish 13 3 

Purchase and Care of Fish 13 7 

Cleaning Fish 13 11 

Boning Fish 13 14 

Skinning Fish 13 14 

Filleting Fish 13 15 

Methods of Cooking iMsh 13 17 

Recipes for Fish Sauces and Stuffings 13 18 

Recipes for Fresh Fish 13 21 

Recipes for Salt and Smoked I'^ish 13 31 

Recipes for Canned P'ish 13 3i 

Recipes for Left-Over 1^'ish 13 35 

Shell Fish — Nature, Varieties, and Use 13 36 

Oysters and Their Preparation 13 39 

Clams and Their Preparation 13 47 

Scallops and Their Preparation 13 49 

Lobsters and Their Preparation 13 51 

Crabs and Their Preparation 13 56 

Shrimp and Their Preparation 13 58 



SOUP 



SOUP AND ITS PLACE IN THE MEAL 



VALUE OF SOUP 

1. Soup is a liquid food that is prepared by boiling meat or 
vegetables, or both, in water and then seasoning and sometimes 
thickening the liquid that is produced. It is usually served as the 
first course of a dinner, but it is often included in a light meal, such 
as luncheon. While some persons regard the making of soup as 
difficult, nothing is easier when one knows just what is required and 
how to proceed. The purpose of this Section, therefore, is to 
acquaint the housewife with the details of soup making, so that she 
may provide her family with appetizing and nutritious soups that 
make for both economy and healthfulness. 

2. It is interesting to note the advancement that has been made 
with this food. The origin of soup, like that of many foods, dates 
back to practically the beginning of history. However, the first soup 
known was probably not made with meat. For instance, the mess of 
pottage for which Esau sold his birthright was soup made of red 
lentils. Later on meat came to be used as the basis for soup 
because of the agreeable and appetizing flavor it provides. Then, 
at one time in France a scarcity of butter and other fats that had 
been used to produce moistness and richness in foods, brought 
about such clear soups as bouillon and consomme. These, as well as 
other liquid foods, found much favor, for about the time they were 
devised it came to be considered vulgar to chew food. Thus, at 
various periods, and because of different emergencies, particular 
kinds of soup have been introduced, tuitil now there are many kinds 
from which the housewife may choose when she desires a dish that 



lONAL EDUCATIONAL PUBLISHING COMPANY. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 



2 SOUP § 9 

will start a meal in the right way and at the same time appeal to 
the appetite. 

3. Value of Soup in the Meal. — Not all persons have the 
same idea regarding the value of soup as a part of a meal. Some 
consider it to be of no more value than so much water, claiming 
that it should be fed to none but children or sick persons who are 
unable to take solid food. On the other hand, many persons believe 
that soup contains the very essence of all that is nourishing and 
sustaining in the foods of which it is made. This difference of 
opinion is well demonstrated by the ideas that have been advanced 
concerning this food. Some one has said that soup is to a meal what 
a portico is to a palace or an overture to an opera, while another 
person, who evidently does not appreciate this food, has said that 
soup is the preface to a dinner and that any work really worth while 
is sufficient in itself and needs no preface. Such opinions, however, 
must be reconciled if the true value of this food is to be appreciated. 

4. Probably the best way in which to come to a definite con- 
clusion as to the importance of soup is to consider the purposes it 
serves in a meal. When its variety and the ingredients of which it 
is composed are thought of, soup serves two purposes : first, as an 
appetizer taken at the beginning of a meal to stimulate the appetite 
and aid in the flow of digestive juices in the stomach ; and, secondly, 
as an actual part of the meal, when it must contain sufficient nutritive 
material to permit it to be considered as a part of the meal instead of 
merely an addition. Even in its first and minor purpose, the impor- 
tant part that soup plays in many meals is not hard to realize, for 
it is just what is needed to arouse the flagging appetite and create 
a desire for nourishing food. But in its second purpose, the real 
value of soup is evident. Whenever soup contains enough nutritive 
material for it to take the place of some dish that would otherwise 
be necessary, its value cannot be overestimated. 

If soup is thought of in this way, the prejudice that exists against 
it in many households will be entirely overcome. But since much 
of this prejudice is due to the fact that the soup served is often 
unappetizing in both flavor and appearance, sufficient attention 
should be given to the making of soup to have this food attractive 
enough to appeal to the appetite rather than discourage it. Soup 
should not be greasy nor insipid in flavor, neither should it be served 
in large quantities nor without the proper accompaniment. A small 



§ 9 SOUP 3 

quantity of well-flavored, attractively served soup cannot fail to 
meet the approval of any family when it is served as the first course 
of the meal. 

5. General Classes of Soup. — Soups are named in various 
ways, according to material, quality, etc. ; but the two purposes for 
which soup is used have led to the placing of the numerous kinds 
into two general classes. In the first class are grouped those which 
serve as appetizers, such as bouillon, consomme, and some other 
broths and clear soups. In the second class are included those eaten 
for their nutritive efifect, such as cream soups, purees, and bisques. 
From these two classes of soup, the one that will correspond with 
the rest of the meal and make it balance properly is the one to 
choose. For instance, a light soup that is merely an appetizer should 
be served with a heavy dinner, whereas a heavy, highly nutritious 
soup should be used with a luncheon or a light meal. 

6. Economic Value of Soup. — Besides having an important 
place in the meal of which it forms a part, soup is very often an 
economy, for it affords the housewife a splendid opportunity to 
utilize many left-overs. With the French people, who excel in the 
art of soup making chiefly because of their clever adaptation of 
seasoning to foods, their pot-att-fcu is a national institution and 
every kitchen has its stock pot. Persons who believe in the strictest 
food economy use a stock pot, since it permits left-overs to be 
utilized in an attractive and palatable way. In fact, there is scarcely 
anything in the way of fish, meat, fowl, vegetables, and cereals that 
cannot be used in soup making, provided such ingredients are cared 
for in the proper way. Very often the first glance at the large 
number of ingredients listed in a soup recipe creates the impression 
that soup must be a very complicated thing. Such, however, is not 
the case. In reality, most of the soup ingredients are small quan- 
tities of things used, for flavoring, and it is by the proper blending of 
these that appetizing soups are secured. 



CLASSIFICATION OF SOUPS 

7. The two general classes of soup already mentioned permit 
of numerous methods of classification. For instance, soups are 
sometimes named from the principal ingredient or an imitation of 
it, as the names potato soup, beef soup, macaroni soup, mock-turtle 
soup testify. Again, both stimulating and nutritious soups may be 



4 SOUP § 9 

divided into thin and thick soups, thin soups usually being clear, 
and thick soups, because of their nature, cloudy. When the quality 
of soups is considered, they are placed in still different classes and 
are called broth, bisque, consomme, puree, and so on. Another 
important classification of soups results from the nationality of the 
people who use them. While soups are classified in other ways, it 
will be sufficient for all practical purposes if the housewife under- 
stands these three principal classes. 

8. Classes Denoting- Consistency. — As has already been 
pointed out, soups are of only two kinds when their consistency 
is thought of, namely, clear soups and tJiick sottps. 

Clear soups are those made from carefully cleared stock, or 
soup foundation, and flavored or garnished with a material from 
which the soup usually takes its name. There are not many soups 
of this kind, bouillon and coiisoiiiinc being the two leading varieties, 
but in order to be palatable, they require considerable care in making. 

Thick soups are also made from stock, but milk, cream, water, 
or any mixture of these may also be used as a basis, and to it may be 
added for thickening meat, fish, vegetables, eggs, or grain or some 
other starchy material. Soups of this kind are often made too 
thick, and as such soups are not appetizing, care must be taken to 
have them just right in consistency. 

9. Classes Denoting' Quality. — Wlien attention is given to 
the quality of soup, this food divides itself into several varieties, 
namely, broth, cream soup, bisque, chowder, and puree. 

Broths have for their foundation a clear stock. They are some- 
times a thin soup, but other times they are made quite thick with 
vegetables, rice, barley, or other material, when they are served as a 
substantial part of a meal. 

Cream, soups are highly nutritious and are of great variety. 
They have for their foundation a thin cream sauce, but to this are 
always added vegetables, meat, fish, or grains. 

Bisques are thick, rich soups made from game, fish, or shell fish, 
particularly crabs, shrimp, etc. Occasionally, vegetables are used 
in soup of this kind. 

Chowders are soups that have sea food for their basis. Vege- 
tables and crackers are generally added for thickening and to 
impart flavor. 



§ SOUP 5 

Purees are soups made thick partly or entirely by the addition 
of some material obtained by boiling an article of food and then 
straining it to form a pulp. When vegetables containing starch, 
such as beans, peas, lentils, and potatoes, are used for this purpose, 
it is unnecessary to thicken the soup with any additional starch ; but 
when meat, fish, or watery vegetables are used, other thickening is 
required. To be right, a puree should be nearly as smooth as thick 
cream and of the same consistency. 

10. Classes Typical of Particular Countries. — Certain 
kinds of soup have been made so universally by the people of various 
countries that they have come to be regarded as national dishes and 
are always thought of as typical of the particular people by whom 
they are used. Among the best known of these soups are Borsch, 
a soup much used by the Russian people and made from beets, leeks, 
and sour cream ; Daikan, a Japanese soup in which radishes are the 
principal ingredient; Kouskous, a soup favored by the people of 
Abyssinia and made from vegetables ; Krishara, a rice soup that 
finds much favor in India; Lchaha, an Egyptian soup whose chief 
ingredients are honey, butter, and raisin water ; Mincstra, an Italian 
soup in which vegetables are combined ; Mulligatawny, an Indian rice 
soup that is flavored with curry ; Potroka, another kind of Russian 
soup, having giblets for its foundation ; Soljinka, an entirely different 
variety of Russian soup, being made from fish and onions ; and 
Tarhunya, a Hungarian soup containing noodles. 



STOCK FOR SOUP 



rSES AXD VARIETIES OF STOCK 

11. Meaning- and Use of Stock. — In order that soup-making 
processes may be readily grasped by the housewife, she should be 
thoroughly familiar with what is meant by stock, which forms the 
foundation of many soups. In looking into the derivation of this 
term, it will be found that the word stock comes from an Anglo- 
Saxon word meaning to stick, and that while it has many different 
uses, the idea of fixedness is expressed in every one of them. As is 
generally known, a stock of anything means a reserve supply of that 
thing stored away for future use. When applied to soup, stock is 



6 SOUP § 9 

similar in meaning, for it refers to material stored or prepared in 
such a way that it may be kept for use in the making of certain 
kinds of soup. In a more definite sense, soup stock may be regarded 
as a liquid containing the juices and soluble parts of meat, bone, and 
vegetables, which have been extracted by long, slow cooking and 
which can be utilized in the making of soups, sauces, and gravies. 

12. Soups in which stock is utilized include all the varieties 
made from beef, veal, mutton, and poultry. If clear stock is desired 
for the making of soup, only fresh meat and bones should be used 
and all material that will discolor the liquid in any way carefully 
avoided. For ordinary, unclarified soups, the trimmings and bones 
of roast, steak, or chops and the carcass of fowl can generally be 
utilized. However, very strongly flavored meat, such as mutton, 
or the fat from mutton should be used sparingly, if at all, on account 
of the strong flavor that it imparts. 

13. Varieties of Stock. — Several kinds of stock are utilized 
in the making of soup, and the kind to employ depends on the soup 
desired. In determining the kind of stock required for the founda- 
tion of a soup, the housewife may be guided by the following classi- 
fication : 

First stock is made from meat and bones and then clarified and 
used for well-flavored, clear soups. 

Second stock is made from the meat and the bones that remain 
after the first stock is strained off. More water is added to the 
remaining material, and this is then cooked with vegetables, which 
supply the needed flavor. Such stock serves very well for adding 
flavor to a nutritious soup made from vegetables or cereal foods. 

Houseliold stock is made by cooking meat and bones, either 
fresh or cooked, with vegetables or other material that will impart 
flavor and add nutritive value. Stock of this kind is used for ordi- 
nary soups. 

Bone stock is made from meat bones to which vegetables are 
added for flavor, and it is used for making any of the ordinary 
soups. 

Vegetable stock is made from either dried or fresh vegetables 
or both. Such stock is employed in making vegetable soups. 

Game stock is made from the bones and trimmings of game to 
which vegetables are added for flavor. This kind of stock is used 
for making game soups. 



§ 9 SOUP 7 

Fish stock is made from fish or fish trimmings to which vege- 
tables are added for flavor. Shell fish make especially good stock 
of this kind. Fish stock is employed for making chowders and 
fish soups. 

14. Additional Uses of Stock. — As has already been shown, 
stock is used principally as a foundation for certain varieties of 
soup. This material, however, may be utilized in many other ways, 
being especially valuable in the use of left-over foods. Any bits of 
meat or fowl that are left over can be made into an appetizing dish 
by adding thickened stock to them and serving the combination over 
toast or rice. In fact, a large variety of made dishes can be devised 
if there is stock on hand to add for flavor. The convenience of a 
supply of stock will be apparent when it is realized that gravy or 
sauce for almost any purpose can be made from the contents of the 
stock pot. 

15. Soup Extracts. — If a housewife does not have sufficient 
time to go through the various processes involved in making soup, 
her family need not be deprived of this article of diet, for there are 
a number of concentrated meat and vegetable extracts on the market 
for making soups quickly. The meat extracts are made of the same 
flavoring material as that which is drawn from meat in the making 
of stock. Almost all the liquid is evaporated and the result is a 
thick, dark substance that must be diluted greatly with water to 
obtain the basis for a soup or a broth. Some of the vegetable, 
extracts, such as Japanese soy and English marmite, are so similar 
in appearance and taste to the meat extracts as to make it quite 
difficult to detect any difference. Both varieties of these extracts 
may be used for sauces and gravies, as well as for soups, but it 
should be remembered that they are not highly nutritious and are 
valuable merely for flavoring. 



THE STOCK POT 

16. Nature, Use, and Care of Stock Pot. — Among the 
utensils used for cooking there is probably none more convenient 
and useful than the stock pot. It is nothing more or less than a 
covered crock or pot like that shown in Fig. 1, into which materials 
that will make a well-flavored stock are put from time to time. From 
such a supply, stock can be drawn when it is needed for soup ; then, 



8 SOUP ■ §9 

when some is taken out, more water and materials may be added to 
replenish the pot. The stock pot should be made of either enamel 
or earthenware, since a metal pot of any kind is liable to impart 
flavor to the food. Likewise, its lid, or cover, should be tight-fitting, 
for then it will be an excellent utensil in which the materials may 
be stored until they are to be heated, when they can be poured or 
dipped into a saucepan or a kettle. 

The stock pot, like any other utensil used for making soup, should 
receive considerable care, as it must be kept scrupulously clean. No 
stock pot should ever be allowed to stand from day to day without 
being emptied, thoroughly washed, and then exposed to the air for 
a while to dry. 

17. Food Suitable for tlie Stock Pot. — Some one has said 
that nothing edible is out of place in the stock pot, and, to a great 
extent, this statement is true. Here should 
be put the bones from the -^-^oked roast, as 
well as the trimmings cut from it before it 
went into the oven ; the tough ends and 
bones of beefsteak ; the trimmings or bones 
sent home by the butcher; the carcasses of 
fowls, together with any remains of stuff- 
ing and tough or left-over bits of meat; any 
left-over vegetables ; the remains of the 
gravy or any unsweetened sauces used for 
^^'^- ^ meats or vegetables ; the spoonful of left- 

over hash, stew, or stuffing; a left-over stuffed tomato or pepper; 
and the water in which rice, macaroni, or certain vegetables have 
been cooked. Of course, plain water can be used for the liquid, 
but the water in which such vegetables as cauliflower, carrots, 
beans, peas, asparagus, celery, and potatoes have been cooked is 
especially desirable, for, besides imparting flavor to the soup, it adds 
valuable mineral salts. However, when such things as left-over 
cereals, rice, macaroni, and green vegetables are to be utilized in 
soup, they should not be put in the stock pot; rather, they should 
be added to the stock after it is removed from the pot. 




8 9 SOUP 



MAKING OF SOUP 



rRIXCiPAL, I\GREDIEXTS 



18. The making of the stock that is used in soup is the most 
important of the soup-making processes; in fact, these two things — 
soup and stock — may be regarded, in many instances, as one and the 
same. The housewife will do well, therefore, to keep in mind that 
whenever reference is made to the making of soup usually stock 
making is also involved and meant. Before the actual soup-making 
processes are taken up, however, the nature of the ingredients 
required should be well understood ; for this reason, suitable meats 
and vegetables, which are the principal ingredients in soups, are first 
discussed. 

19. Meat Used for Soup Making-. — With the exception of 
pork, almost every kind of meat, including beef, veal, mutton, lamb, 
game, and poultry, is used for soup making. Occasionally, ham is 
employed, but most other forms of pork are seldom used to any 
extent. When soup stock is made from these meats, they may be 
cooked separately, or, as a combination is often an improvement 
over a single variety, several kinds may be combined. For instance, 
mutton used alone makes a very strongly flavored soup, so that it is 
usually advisable to combine this kind of meat with another meat 
that has a less distinctive flavor. On the other hand, veal alone does 
not have sufficient flavor, so it must be combined with lamb, game, 
fowl, or some other well-flavored meat. 

20. Certain cuts of meats are preferred to others in the making 
of soups, because of the difference in their texture. The tender cuts, 
which are the expensive ones, should not be used for soups, as they 
do not produce enough flavor. The tough cuts, which come from 
the muscles that the animal uses constantly and that therefore grow 
hard and tough, are usually cheaper, but they are more suitable, 
because they contain the material that makes the best soup. The 
pieces best adapted to soup making are the shins, the shanks, the 
lower part of the round, the neck, the flank, the shoulder, the tail, 
and the brisket. The parts of the animal from which these cuts are 
taken are clearly shown in Fig. 2. Although beef is obtained from 
the animal shown, the same cuts come from practically the same 



10 



SOUP 



§9 



places in other animals. Stock made from one of these cuts will 
be improved if a small amount of the fat of the meat is cooked 
with it; but to avoid soup that is too greasy, any excess fat that 
remains after cooking should be carefully removed. The marrow 
of the shin bone is the best fat for soup making. 

If soup is to be made from fish, a white variety should be selected. 
The head and trimmings may be utilized, but these alone are not 
sufficient, because soup requires some solid pieces of meat. The 
same is true of meat bones ; they are valuable only when they are 
used with meat, an equal proportion of bone and meat being required 
for the best stock, 

21. "Vegetables Used for Soup Making. — In soup making, 
the housewife has also a large number of vegetables from which 




to select, for any vegetable that has a decided flavor may be used. 
Among those from which soups can be made successfully are cab- 
bage, cauliflower, asparagus, corn, onions, turnips, carrots, parsnips, 
tomatoes, beans, peas, lentils, salsify, potatoes, spinach, celery, mush- 
rooms, okra, and even sweet potatoes. These vegetables are used 
for two purposes : to provide flavoring and to form part of the soup 
itself as well as to furnish flavor. When they are used simply for 
flavoring, they are cooked until their flavor is obtained and then 
removed from the stock. When they are to form part of the soup, 
as well as to impart flavor, they are left in the soup in small pieces 
or made into a puree and eaten with the soup. 



§ 9 SOUP 11 

Attention, too, must be given to the condition of the vegetables 
that are used in soup. The fresh vegetables that are used should 
be in perfect condition. They should have no decayed places that 
might taint or discolor the soups, and they should be as crisp and 
solid as possible. If they are somewhat withered or faded, they can 
be freshened by allowing them to stand in cold water for a short 
time. When dried vegetables are to be used for soup making, they 
should first be soaked well in cold water and then, before being 
added to the stock, either partly cooked or entirely cooked and made 
into a puree. 

PROCESSES IIVVOLVED I\ MAKING STOCK 

22. Although the making of stock or soup is a simple process, it 
must necessarily be a rather long one. The reason for this is that all 
flavor cannot be drawn from the soup materials unless they are 
subjected to long, slow cooking at a temperature lower than the 
boiling point. With this point definitely understood, the actual work 
of soup making may be taken up. 

23. Cooking- Meat for Soup. — When clear stock is to be 
made from fresh meat, the required quantity of meat should be cut 
into small pieces rather than large ones, so as to expose as much of 
the surface as possible from which the flavor of the meat can be 
drawn. A little more flavor is obtained and a brown color developed 
if a small part, perhaps a fourth, of the pieces of meat are first 
browned in the frying pan. The pieces thus browned, together with 
the pieces of fresh meat, are put into a kettle and a quart of cold 
water for each pound of meat is then added. 

The reason for using cold rather than hot water will be evident 
when the action of water on raw meat is understood. The fiber of 
meat is composed of innumerable thread-like tubes containing the 
flavor that is to be drawn out into the water in order to make the 
stock appetizing. When the meat is cut, these tiny tubes are laid 
open. Putting the meat thus prepared into cold water and allowing 
it to heat gradually tend to extract the contents of the tubes. This 
material is known as extractives, and it contains in its composition 
stimulating substances. On the other hand, plunging the meat into 
hot water and subjecting it quickly to a high temperature will coag- 
ulate the protein in the tissue and prevent the extractives from 
leaving the tubes. 



12 SOUP § 9 

24. To obtain the most flavor from meat that is properly pre- 
pared, it should be put over a slow fire and allowed to come gradu- 
ally to the boiling point. As the water approaches the boiling point, 
a scum consisting of coagulated albumin, blood, and foreigi: mate- 
rial will begin to rise to the top, but this should be skimmed off at 
once and the process of skimming continued until no scum remains. 
When the water begins to boil rapidly, either the fire should be 
lowered or the kettle should be removed to a cooler part of the 
stove so that the water will bubble only enough for a very slight 
motion to be observed. Throughout the cooking, the meat should 
not be allowed to boil violently nor to cease bubbling entirely. 

The meat should be allowed to cook for at least 4 hours, but 
longer if possible. If, during this long cooking, too much water 
evaporates, more should be added to dilute the stock. The salt that 
is required for seasoning may be added just a few minutes before 
the stock is removed from the kettle. However, it is better to add 
the salt, together with the other seasonings, after the stock has been 
drawn off, for salt, like heat, has a tendency to harden the tissues 
of meat and to prevent the flavor from being readily extracted. 

25. Although, as has been explained, flavor is drawn from the 
fibers of meat by boiling it slowly for a long time, the cooking of 
meat for soup does not extract the nourishment from it to any 
extent. In reality, the meat itself largely retains its original nutri- 
tive value after it has been cooked for soup, ahhough a small 
quantity of protein is drawn out and much of the fat is removed. 
This meat should never be wasted ; rather, it should be used care- 
fully with materials that will take the place of the flavor that has 
been cooked from it. 

26. Flavoring- Stock. — It is the flavoring of stock that indi- 
cates real skill in soup making, so this is an extremely important 
part of the work. In fact, the large number of ingredients found 
in soup recipes are, as a rule, the various flavorings, which give the 
distinctive flavor and individuality to a soup. However, the house- 
wife whose larder will not produce all of the many things that may 
be called for in a recipe should not feel that she must forego making 
a particular kind of soup. Very often certain spices or certain 
flavoring materials may be omitted without any appreciable differ- 
ence, or something that is on hand may be substituted for an ingre- 
dient that is lacking. 



§ 9 SOUP 13 

27. The flavorings used most for soup include cloves, pepper- 
corns, red, black, and white pepper, paprika, bay leaf, sage, mar- 
joram, thyme, summer savory, tarragon, celery seed, fennel, mint, 
and rosemary. While all of these are not absolutely necessary, the 
majority of them may well be kept on the pantry shelf. In addition, 
a bottle of Worcestershire sauce should be kept on hand. Celery 
and parsley, which are also much used for flavoring, can usually be 
purchased fresh, but as they are scarce at times it is advisable to 
dry some of the leaves during the season when they can be secured, 
so as to have a supply when they are not in the market. A small 
amount of lemon peel often improves soup, so some of this should 
be kept in store. Another group of vegetables that lend themselves 
admirably to soup flavoring includes leeks, shallots, chives, garlic, 
and onions, all of which belong to the same family. They must be 
used judiciously, however, as a strong flavor of any of them is 
offensive to most persons. 

28. As many of the flavorings used for soup lose their strength 
when they are exposed to the air, every effort should be made to keep 
them in good condition. Many of them can be kept an indefinite 
length of time if they are placed in tightly closed metal boxes or 
glass jars. Flavorings and spices bought from the grocer or the 
druggist in paper packages should be transferred to, and enclosed 
in, a receptacle that will not allow them to deteriorate. If proper 
attention is given to these materials, the supply will not have to be 
replenished often ; likewise, the cost of a sufficient number to pro- 
duce the proper flavorings will be very slight. 

29. In the use of any of the flavorings mentioned or the strongly 
flavored vegetables, care should be taken not to allow any one 
particular flavor to predominate. Each should be used in such 
quantity that it will blend well with the others. A very good way 
in which to fix spices and herbs that are to flavor soup is to tie them 
in a small piece of cheesecloth and drop the bag thus made into the 
soup pot. When prepared in this way, they will remain together, 
so that, while the flavor can be cooked out, they can be more readily 
removed from the liquid than if they are allowed to spread through 
the contents of the pot. Salt, which is, of course, always used to 
season soup, should be added in the proportion of 1 teaspoonful to 
each quart of liquid. 



14 SOUP § 9 

30. Removing- Grease From Soup. — A greasy soup is 
always unpalatable. Therefore, a very important feature of soup 
making, whether a thin or a thick soup is being made, is the removal 
of all grease. Various ways of removing grease have been devised, 
depending on whether the soup is hot or cold. In the case of hot or 
warm soup, all the grease that it is possible to remove with a spoon 
may be skimmed from the top, and the remainder then taken up with 
a piece of clean blotting paper, tissue-paper, or absorbent cotton. 
Another plan, by which the fat may be hardened and then collected, 
consists in tying a few small pieces of ice in a piece of cloth and 
drawing them over the surface of the soup. A very simple method 
is to allow the soup or stock to become cold, and then remove the 
fat, which collects on the top and hardens, by merely lifting off the 
cake that forms. 

31. Clearing- Soup.) — Sometimes it is desired to improve the 
appearance of soup stock, particularly a small amount of soup that is 
to be served at a very dainty luncheon or dinner. In order to do this, 
the stock may be treated by a certain process that will cause it to 
become clear. After being cleared, it may be served as a thin soup 
or, if it is heavy enough, it may be made into a clear, sparkling 
jelly into which many desirable things may be molded for salad or 
for a dish to accompany a heavy course. Clearing soup is rather 
extravagant ; however, while it does not improve the taste, it does 
improve the appearance, 

A very satisfactory way in which to clear stock is to use egg 
whites and crushed egg shell. To each quart of cold stock should be 
added the crushed shell and a slightly beaten egg white. These 
should be mixed well, placed on the lire, and the mixture stirred 
constantly until it boils. As the egg coagulates, some of the float- 
ing particles in the stock are caught and carried to the top, while 
others are carried to the bottom by the particles of shell as they 
settle. After the mixture has boiled for 5 or 10 minutes, the top 
should be skimmed carefully and the stock then strained through 
a fine cloth. When it has been reheated, the cleared stock will be 
ready to serve. 

32. Thickening Soup. — Although thin, clear soups are pre- 
ferred by some and are particularly desirable for their stimulating 
effect, thick soups find much favor when they are used to form a 
substantial part of a meal. Besides giving consistency to soup, 



§ 9 SOUP 15 

thickening usually improves the flavor, but its chief purpose is to 
give nutritive value to this food. In fact, whenever a soup is thick- 
ened, its food value is increased by the ingredient thus added. For 
this reason, it is advisable to thicken soups when they are desired 
for any other purpose than their stimulating effect. 

33. The substance used to thicken soups may be either a starchy 
material or food or a puree of some food. The starchy materials 
generally used for this purpose are plain flour, browned flour, corn 
starch, and arrowroot flour. Any one of these should be moistened 
with enough cold water to make a mixture that will pour easily, and 
then added to the hot liquid while the soup is stirred constantly to 
prevent the formation of lumps. A sufficient amount of this thick- 
ening material should be used to make a soup of the consistency of 
heavy cream. 

The starchy foods that are used for thickening include rice, bar- 
ley, oatmeal, noodles, tapioca, sago, and macaroni. Many unusual 
and fancy forms of macaroni can be secured, or the plain varieties 
of Italian pastes may be broken into small pieces and cooked with 
the soup. When any of these foods are used, they should be added 
long enough before the soup is removed to be cooked thoroughly. 

Purees of beans, peas, lentils, potatoes, and other vegetables are 
especially desirable for the thickening of soups, for they not only 
give consistency, but add nutritive value and flavor as well. Another 
excellent thickening may be obtained by beating raw eggs and then 
adding them carefully to the soup just before it is to be served. 
After eggs have been added for thickening, the soup should not be 
allowed to boil, as it is liable to curdle. 

34. Keeping: Stock.' — Soup stock, like many other foods, 
spoils quite readily. Therefore, in order to keep it for at least a 
few days, it must receive proper attention. At all times, the vessel 
containing stock should be tightly closed and, especially in warm 
weather, the stock should be kept as cold as possible. Stock that is 
heavy enough to solidify into a jellylike consistency when it is cold 
will keep better than stock that remains liquid. The addition of 
salt or any spicy flavoring also helps to keep stock from deteriorat- 
ing, because these materials act as preservatives and prevent the 
action of bacteria that cause spoiling. Bacteria may be kept from 
entering soup if, instead of removing the grease, it is allowed to 



30 



SOUP 



§J) 



form in a solid cake over the top. No matter which of these pre- 
cautions is taken to prevent stock from spoihng, it should be heated 
to boiling point once a day when it is to be kept for several days. 



SERVING SOUP 

35. Soup may be correctly served in several different ways, the 
method to adopt usually depending on the kind of soup. Thin, clear 
soups are generally served in bouillon cups, as shown in Fig. 3, which 
may be placed on the table immediately before the family assembles 
or passed after the members are seated. Heavier soups may be 
served at the table from a soup tureen, or each person's portion 




Fig. 3 

may be served before the family comes to the table. For soups of 
this kind, the flat soup plate, like that shown in Fig. 4, is found 
preferable. 

The spoon to be served with soup also depends on the kind of 
soup, but a larger spoon than a teaspoon is always necessary. When 
soup is served in a soup plate, a dessert spoon is used, as will be 
observed in Fig. 4. A bouillon spoon is the best kind to use with 
any thin soup served in bouillon cups. Such a spoon, as shown 
in F\g. 3, is about the length of a teaspoon, but has a round bowl. 

ilCt. To increase the attractiveness of soup and at the same time 
make it more appetizing and nutritious, various accompaniments 
and relishes are served with it. When the accompaniment is in the 
form of crackers, croutons, or bread sticks, they may be passed after 
the soup is served, or, as shown in Figs. 3 and 4, a few of them 
may be placed on the bread-and-butter plate at each person's place. 



§0 



SOUP 



17 



The relishes should be passed while the soup is being eaten. Plain 
whipped cream or whipped cream into which a little mashed 
pimiento has been stirred adds much to the flavor and appearance 
of soup when served on the top of any hot or cold variety. Then, 
too, many soups, especially vegetable soups, are improved in flavor 
l)y the addition of a spoonful of grated cheese, which should be 
sprinkled into the dish at the time of serving. For this purpose, a 




hard, dry cheese, such as Parmesan, which can often be purchased 
already grated in bottles, is the most satisfactory. 

37. In summer, clear soups are sometimes served cold, as cold 
soups are found more desirable for warm weather than hot ones. 
However, when a soup is intended to be hot, it should be hot when 
it is ready to be eaten, and every effort should be made to have it 
in this condition if an appetizing soup is desired. This can be 
accomplished if the soup is thoroughly heated before it is removed 
from the stove and the dishes in which it is to be served are warmed 
before the soup is put into them. 



18 SOUP 



RECIPES FOR SOUP AND SOUP 
ACCOMPANIMENTS 



NECESSITY FOR CAREFUL WORK 

38. So that the housewife may put into practice the knowledge 
she has gained about soup making, there are here given recipes for 
various kinds of soup. As will be observed, these recipes are classi- 
fied according to the consistency and nature of the soups, all those 
of one class being placed in the same group. As it is important, too, 
for the housewife to know how to prepare the various accompani- 
ments and garnishes that are generally served with soup, directions 
for the making of these are also given and they follow the soup 
recipes. 

39. In carrying out these recipes, it will be well to note that 
exactness in fulfilling the requirements and care in working out 
the details of the recipes are essential. These points cannot be 
ignored in the making of soup any more than in other parts of 
cookery, provided successful results and excellent appearance are 
desired. It is therefore wise to form habits of exactness. For 
instance, when vegetables are to be cut for soups, they should be 
cut into pieces of equal size, or, if they are to be diced, they should 
be cut so that the dice are alike. All the pieces must be of the same 
thickness in order to insure uniform cooking; if this precaution is 
not observed, some of the pieces are likely to overcook and fall to 
pieces before the others are done. 

Strict attention should also be given to the preparation of other 
ingredients and the accompaniments. The meat used must be cut 
very carefully rather than in ragged, uneven pieces. Noodles, which 
are often used in soup, may be of various widths ; but all those used 
at one time should be uniform in width — that is, all wide or all nar- 
row. If different widths are used, an impression of careless cutting 
will be given. Croutons and bread sticks, to be most satisfactory, 
should be cut straight and even, and, in order to toast uniformly, all 
those made at one time should be of the same size. 



?OUP 19 



STOCKS AND CLEAR SOUPS 

40. Stock for Clear Soup or Bouillon. — A plain, but well- 
flavored, beef stock may be made according to the accompanying 
recipe and used as a basis for any clear soup served as bouillon 
without the addition of anything else. However, as the addition of 
rice, barley, chopped macaroni, or any other such food will increase 
the food value of the soup, any of them may be supplied to produce 
a more nutritious soup. When this stock is served clear, it should 
be used as the first course in a comparatively heavy meal. 

Stock for Clear Soup or Bouillon 

4 lb. beef 6 whole cloves 

4 qt. cold water 12 peppercorns 

1 medium-sized onion 1 bay leaf 

1 stalk celery Salt 

2 sprigs parsley Pepper 

Cut the meat into small pieces. Pour the cold water over it, place 
on a slow fire, and let it come to a boil. Skim ofif all scum that rises 
to the top. Cover tightly and keep at the simmering point for 6 to 
8 hours. Then strain and remove the fat. Add the onion and 
celery cut into pieces, the parsley, cloves, peppercorns, and bay leaf. 
Simmer gently for about 20 minutes. Add salt and pepper to taste. 
Strain through a cloth. 

41. Household Stock. — If it is desired to make a stock that 
may be kept on hand constantly and that may be used as a founda- 
tion for various kinds of soups, sauces, and gravies, or as a broth 
for making casserole dishes, household stock will be found very 
satisfactory. Such stock made in quantity and kept in a sufficiently 
cool place may be used for several days before it spoils. Since most 
of the materials used in this stock cannot be put to any other par- 
ticularly good use, and since the labor required in making it is slight, 
this may be regarded as an extremely economical stock. 

Household Stock 
3 qt. cold water 4 cloves 

3 lb. meat (trimmings of fresh 6 peppercorns 

meat, bones, and tough pieces Herbs 

from roasts, steaks, etc.) Salt 

1 medium-sized onion Pepper 

Pour the cold water over the meat and bones and put them on the 
fire to cook. When they come to a boil skim well. Then cover and 



20 SOUP § 9 

simmer 4 to 6 hours. Add the onion, cloves, peppercorns, and herbs 
and cook for another hour. Add salt and pepper to taste. Strain 
and set aside to cool. Remove the fat. 

42. White Stock. — An especially nice broth having a delicate 
flavor and generally used for special functions when an attractive 
meal is being served to a large number of persons is made from 
veal and fowl and known as white stock. If allowed to remain in 
a cool place, this stock will solidify, and then it may be used as the 
basis for a jellied meat dish or salad. 

White Stock 
5 lb. veal 2 stalks celery 

1 fowl, 3 or 4 lb. 1 blade mace 
8 qt. cold water Salt 

2 medium-sized onions Pepper 
2 Tb. butter 

Cut the veal and fowl into pieces and add the cold water. Place 
on a slow fire, and let come gradually to the boiling point. Skim 
carefully and place where it will simmer gently for 6 hours. Slice 
the onions, brown slightly in the butter, and add to the stock with 
the celery and mace. Salt and pepper to suit taste. Cook 1 hour 
longer and then strain and cool. Remove the fat before using. 

43. Consomme. — One of the most delicious of the thin, clear 
broths is consomme. This is usually served plain, but any material 
that will not cloud it, such as finely diced vegetables, green peas, 
tiny pieces of fowl or meat, may, if desired, be added to it before 
it is served. As a rule, only a very small quantity of such material 
is used for each serving. 

Consomme 

4 lb. lower round of beef 5 cloves 

4 lb. shin of veal 4 sprigs parsley 

^ c. butter Pinch summer savory 

8 qt. cold water Pinch thyme 

1 small carrot 2 bay leaves 

1 large onion Salt 

2 stalks celery Pepper 
12 peppercorns 

Cut the beef and veal into small pieces. Put the butter and meat 
into the stock kettle, and stir over the fire until the meat begins to 
brown. Add the cold water, and let come to the boiling point. 
Skim carefully and let simmer for 6 hours. Cut the vegetables into 



§ SOUP 21 

small pieces and add to the stock with the spices and herbs. Cook 
for 1 hour, adding salt and pepper to suit taste. Strain and cool. 
Remove the fat and clear according to directions previously given. 

44. Tomato Bouillon. — It is possible to make a clear tomato 
soup without meat stock, but the recipe here given, which is made 
with meat stock, has the advantage of possessing a better flavor. 
The tomato in this bouillon lends an agreeable color and flavor and 
affords a change from the usual clear soup. Cooked rice, macaroni, 
spaghetti, or vermicelli may be added to tomato bouillon to provide 
an additional quantity of nutrition and vary the plain soup. 
Tomato Bouillon 

(Sufficient to Serve Eight) 

1 qt. meat stock j tsp. pepper 

1 tsp. salt 1 can tomatoes 

1 Tb. sugar 
Heat the stock, and to it add the salt, sugar, and pepper. Rub 

the tomatoes through a fine sieve, and add them to the stock. Cook 

together for a few minutes and serve. 



HEAVY THICK SOUPS 

45. Julienne Soup.' — A very good way in which to utilize 
any small quantities of vegetables that may be in supply but are not 
sufficient to serve alone is to use them in julienne soup. For soup 
of this kind, vegetables are often cut into fancy shapes, but this is 
a more or less wasteful practice and should not be followed, as tiny 
strips or dice cut finely and carefully are quite as agreeable. The 
vegetables do not add a large amount of nutriment to this soup, but 
they introduce into the soup mineral salts that the soups would 
otherwise not have and they also add a variety of flavor. 
Julienne Soup 

(Sufficient to Serve Six) 

1 pt. mixed vegetables 1 qt. stock 

i tsp. salt 5 tsp. pepper 

Cut into tiny dice or into strips such vegetables as celery, carrots, 
and turnips, making them as nearly the same size and shape as 
possible. Put them on to cook in enough boiling salted water to 
cover well. Cook until they are soft enough to be pierced with a 
fork, but do not lose their shape. Drain off the water and put the 



22 SOUP §9 

vegetables into the stock. Bring to the boihng point, season with the 
pepper, and serve. 

46. Ox-Tail Soup. — The use of ox tails for soup helps to 
utilize a part of the beef that would ordinarily be wasted, and, as 
a rule, ox tails are comparatively cheap. Usually the little bits of 
meat that cook ofif the bones are allowed to remain in the soup. 
Variety may be obtained by the addition of different kinds of 
vegetables. 

Ox-Tail Soup 
(Sufficient to Serve Eight) 

2 ox tails 1 Tb. mixed herbs 

1 large onion 4 peppercorns 

1 Tb. beef drippings 1 Tb. salt 

4 qt. cold water 
Wash and cut up the ox tails, separating them at the joints. Slice 
the onion and brown it and half of the ox tails in the beef drip- 
pings. When they are browned, put them and the remainder of the 
ox tails into a kettle. Add the water and the herbs and peppercorns 
tied in a little piece of cheesecloth. Bring to the boiling point, and 
then simmer for 3 to 4 hours or until the meat separates from the 
bones. Add the salt an hour before serving the soup. Remove the 
fat and serve some of the nicest joints with the soup. If vegetables 
are desired, they should be diced and added 20 minutes before 
serving, so that they will be cooked soft. 

47. Mulligatawny Soup. — If a highly seasoned soup is 
desired, mulligatawny, although not a particularly cheap soup, will 
be found very satisfactory. The curry powder that is used adds 
an unusual flavor that is pleasing to many people, but if it is not 
desired, it may be omitted. 

Mulligatawny Soup 
(Sufficient to Serve Eight) 

3 lb. chicken 4 cloves 

1 lb. veal 1 stalk celery 

4 qt. cold water 1 Tb. curry powder 

2 onions 1 tsp. salt 

1 Tb. butter j tsp. pepper 

4 peppercorns 1 lemon 

Cut up the chicken and veal, add the cold water to them, and place 

over a slow fire. Slice the onions and brown them in the butter. 

Add them and the peppercorns, cloves, chopped celery, and curry 

powder stirred to a smooth paste with a little water to the meat. 



9 



SOUP 



23 



Simmer together slowly until the chicken is tender. Remove the 
meat from the bones and cut it into small pieces. Put the bones 
into the kettle and simmer for another hour. Strain the liquid from 
the veal and bones and remove the fat. Add the salt, pepper, 
chicken, and the juice of the lemon. Return to the fire and cook for 
a few minutes. Serve with a tablespoonful or two of cooked rice 
in each soup dish. 

48. Noodle Soup. — The addition of noodles to soup increases 
its food value to a considerable extent by providing carbohydrate 
from the flour and protein from the egg and flour. Noodle soup is 
a very attractive dish if the noodles are properly made, for then 
they will not cause the soup to become cloudy when they are put 
into it. Little difficulty will be experienced if the directions here 
given for making noodles are followed explicitly. 
Noodle Soup 

(Sufficient to Serve Six) 

1 egg 1 qt. household stock 

1 Tb. milk 3 sprigs parsley 

•| tsp. salt 1 small onion 

Flour 
To make noodles, beat the egg slightly, add to it the milk, and stir 
in the salt and enough flour to make a stiff dough. Toss upon a 




floured board and roll very thin. Allow the dough to dry for -J hour 
or more, and then, as shown in Fig. 5, cut it into strips about 
4 inches wide. Place several strips together, one on top of the 



24 SOUP § 9 

other, and roll them up tight, in the manner indicated. Cut each roll 
into thin slices with a sharp knife, as shown in Fig. 6. When the 
slices are separated the noodles should appear as shown in the pile 
at the right. If it is desired not to follow this plan, the dough may 
be rolled into a thin sheet and cut into strips with a noodle cutter. 




Such a supply of noodles may be used at once, or they may be 
dried thoroughly and sealed tightly in a jar for future use. The 
very dry ones, however, require a little longer cooking than those- 
which are freshly made, ^^'ith the noodles prepared, heat the stock 
with the parsley and onion cliopi)cd very fine. Add the noodles and 
cook for 15 or 20 minutes or until the noodles are thoroughly 
cooked. 

Rice, barley, macaroni, and other starchy materials may be added 
to stock in the same way as the noodles. 

49. Vegetable Soup With Noodles. — The combination of 
noodles and vegetables in soup is a very excellent one, since the 
vegetal)les add flavor and the noodles add nutritive value. If the 
vegetables given in the accompanying recipe cannot be readily 
obtained, others may be substituted. 

Vegetable Soup With Noodles 

(Sufficient to Serve Six) 

1 carrot i tsp. salt 

1 onion i c. noodles 

1 turnip 2 sprigs parsley 

1 slalk celery i tsp. pepper 

1 c. boiling water 1 ([t. household stock 



§9 



SOUP 



Dice the vegetables and put them on to cook with the boihng 
water and the salt. Cook for a few minutes or until partly soft. 
Add the noodles, parsley, pepper, and slock and cook for 15 min- 
utes longer. Serve. 



CREAM SOUPS 

50. Soups classed as cream scnips consist of a thin white 
sauce to which is added a vegetable in the form of a puree or cut 
into small pieces. Because of their nature, cream soups are usually 
high in food value ; but they are not highly flavored, so their use is 
that of supplying nutrition rather than stimulating the appetite. 
Considerable variety can be secured in cream soups, for there are 
scarcely any vegetables 
that cannot be used in 
the making of them. 
Potatoes, corn, aspara- 
gus, spinach, peas, toma- 
toes, and onions are the 
vegetables that are used 
oftenest, l)Ut cream 
soups may also be made 
of vegetable oysters, 
okra, carrots, water- 
cress, celery, cabbage, 
cauliflower, beans, len- 
tils, and dried peas. The 

vegetables may be cooked especially for the soup, or left-over or 
canned vegetables may be utilized. It is an excellent plan to cook 
more than enough of some vegetables for one day, so that some w'ill 
be left over and ready for soup the next day. 

If the vegetable is not cut up into small pieces, it must be put 
through a sieve and made into the form of a puree before it can 
be added to the liquid. Two kinds of sieves for this purpose are 
shown in Fig. 7. It will be observed that with the large, round 
sieve, a potato masher must be used to mash the vegetables, the 
pulp of which is caught by the utensil in which the sieve is held. 
In making use of the smaller sieve, or ricer, the vegetable is placed 
in it and then mashed by pressing the top down over the contents 
with the aid of the handles. 




26 SOUP § JJ 

51. Thin White Sauce. — The liquid for cream soups should 
be thin white sauce made entirely of milk or of milk and cream. 
The flavor of the soup will be improved, however, by using with 
the milk some meat stock, or the stock that remains from cooking 
celery, asparagus, or any vegetables that will lend a good flavor to 
the soup. The recipe here given makes a sauce that may be used 
for any kind of cream soup. 

Thin White Sauce 
1 pt. milk, or milk and cream or 2 Tb. butter 

stock 2 Tb. flour 

1 tsp. salt 
Heat the liquid, salt, and butter in a double boiler. Stir the flour 
and some of the cold liquid that has been reserved to a perfectly 
smooth, thin paste and add to the hot liquid. Stir constantly after 
adding the flour, so that no lumps will form. When the sauce 
becomes thick, it is ready for the addition of any flavoring material 
that will make a palatable soup. If thick material, such as any 
vegetable in the form of a puree, rice, or potato, is used without 
additional liquid, only half as much flour will be required to thicken 
the sauce. 

52. Cream-of-Potato Soup. — Because of the large quantity 
of carbohydrate derived from the potato, cream-of -potato soup is 
high in food value. For persons who are fond of the flavor of the 
potato, this makes a delicious soup and one that may be served as 
the main dish in a light meal. 

Cream-of-Potato Soup 

(Sufficient to Serve Four) 

2 slices of onion 1 Tb. flour 

1 sprig parsley 2 Tb. butter 

2 medium-sized potatoes 1 tsp. salt 

1 c. milk ^ tsp. pepper 

1 c. potato water 
Cook the onion and parsley with the potatoes, and, when cooked 
soft, drain and mash. Make a sauce of the milk, potato water, 
flour, and butter. Season with the salt and pepper, add the mashed 
potato, and serve. 

53. Cream-of-Corn Soup. — The flavor of corn is excellent 
in a cream soup, the basis of the soup being milk, butter, and flour. 
Then, too, the addition of the corn, which is comparatively high in 
food value, makes a very nutritious soup. 



§ 9 SOUP 27 

Cream-of-Corn Soup 

(Sufficient to Serve Four) 

1 pt. milk 1 c. canned corn 

1 Tb. butter 1 tsp. salt 

1 Tb. flour -g tsp. pepper 

Make a white sauce of the milk, butter, and flour. Force the corn 
through a colander or a sieve, and add the puree to the white sauce. 
Season with the salt and pepper, and serve. 

54. Cream-of-Asparagus Soup. — The asparagus used in 
cream-of-asparagus soup adds very little besides flavor, but this is 
of sufficient value to warrant its use. If a pinch of soda is used 
in asparagus soup, there is less danger of the curdling that some- 
times occurs. In making this soup, the asparagus should be com- 
bined with the white sauce just before serving. 

Cream-of-Asparagus Soup 

(Sufficient to Serve Four) 

1 pt. milk 1 c. asparagus puree 

2 Tb. flour 1 tsp. salt 

2 Tb. butter ^ tsp. pepper 

Make white sauce of the milk, flour, and butter. Add to it the 
cup of puree made by forcing freshly cooked or canned asparagus 
through a sieve. Season with the salt and pepper, and serve. 

55. Cream-of-Spinach. Soup.- — Although cream-of-spinach 
soup is not especially attractive in appearance, most persons enjoy 
its flavor, and the soup serves as another way of adding an iron-con- 
taining food to the diet. Children may often be induced to take the 
soup when they would refuse the spinach as a vegetable. 

Cream-of-Spinach Soup 

(Sufficient to Serve Four) 

1 pt. milk ^ c. spinach puree 

2 Tb. flour 1 tsp. salt 

2 Tb. butter | tsp. pepper 

Make white sauce of the milk, flour, and butter. Add the spinach 
puree, made by forcing freshly cooked or canned spinach through a 
sieve. Season with the salt and pepper, heat thoroughly, and serve. 

56. Cream-of-Pea Soup. — Either dried peas or canned green 
peas may be used to make cream-of-pea soup. If dried peas are 
used, they must first be cooked soft enough to pass through a sieve. 
The flavor is quite different from that of green peas. With the use 
of green peas, a fair amount of both protein and carbohydrate is 



28 SOUP § 9 

added to the soup, but more protein is provided when dried peas 
are used. 

Cream-of-Pea Soup 
(Sufficient to Serve Four) 

1 pt. milk I c. pea puree 

1 Tb. flour 1 tsp. salt 

2 Tb. butter | tsp. pepper 

Make white sauce of the milk, flour, and butter. Put enough 
freshly cooked or canned peas through a sieve to make ^ cupful of 
puree. Then add the pea puree, the salt, and the pepper to the 
white sauce. Heat thoroughly and serve. 

57. Cream-of-Toinato Soup. — As a rule, cream-of-tomato 
soup is popular with every one. Besides being pleasing to the 
taste, it is comparatively high in food value, because its basis is 
cream sauce. However, the tomatoes themselves add very little 
else besides flavor and mineral salts. 

Cream-of-Tomato Soup 

(Sufficient to Serve Four) 

1 c. canned tomatoes l tsp. soda 

1 pt. milk 1 tsp. salt 

3 Tb. flour ;g tsp. pepper 

3 Tb. butter 
Force the tomatoes through a sieve and heat them. Make white 
sauce of the milk, flour, and butter. Add the soda to the tomatoes, 
and pour them slowly into the white sauce, stirring rapidly. If the 
sauce begins to curdle, beat the soup quickly with a rotary egg 
beater. Add the salt and pepper and serve. 

58. Cream-of-Onion Soup. — Many persons who are not fond 
of onions can often eat soup made of this vegetable. This is prob- 
ably due to the fact that the browning of the onions before they 
are used in the soup improves the flavor very decidedly. In addi- 
tion, this treatment of the onions gives just a little color to the soup. 

Cream-of-Onion Soup 

(Sufficient to Serve Four) 

4 medium-sized onions 2i c. milk 

4 Tb. butter 1 tsp. salt 

2 Tb. flour I tsp. pepper 

Slice the onions and brown them in a frying pan with 2 table- 
spoonfuls of the butter. Make white sauce of the flour, the remain- 
ing butter, and the milk. Add to this the browned onions, salt, and 
pepper. Heat thoroughly and serve. 



§ 9 SOUP 29 



PUREES 

59. Chestnut Puree. — There are many recipes for the use of 
chestnuts in the making of foods, but probably none is any more 
popular than that for chestnut puree. The chestnuts develop a light- 
tan color in the soup. The very large ones should be purchased for 
this purpose, since chestnuts of ordinary size are very tedious to 
work with. 

Chestnut Puree 

(Sufficient to Serve Four) 

1 c. mashed chestnuts 1 tsp. salt 

1 c. milk i tsp. pepper 

2 Tb. flour i tsp. celery salt 
2 Tb. butter 1 c. white stock 

Cook Spanish chestnuts for 10 minutes ; then remove the shells 
and skins and mash the chestnuts. Make white sauce of the milk, 
flour, and butter. Add to this the mashed chestnuts, salt, pepper, 
celery salt, and stock. Heat thoroughly and serve. 

60. Split-Pea Puree. — Dried peas or split peas are extremely 
high in food value, and their addition to soup stock makes a highly 
nutritious soup of very delightful flavor. Such a puree served in 
quantity does nicely for the main dish in a light meal. Instead of 
the peas, dried beans or lentils may be used if they are preferred. 

Split-Pea Puree 

(Sufficient to Serve Four) 

f c. split peas i tsp. pepper 

1 pt. white stock 2 Tb. butter 

1 tsp. salt 2 Tb. flour 

Soak the peas overnight, and cook in sufficient water to cover 
well until they are soft. When thoroughly soft, drain the water 
from the peas and put them through a colander. Heat the stock 
and add to it the pea puree, salt, and pepper. Rub the butter and 
flour together, moisten with some of the warm liquid, and add to 
the soup. Cook for a few minutes and serve. 



30 SOUP § 9 



CHOWDERS 

61. Clam Chowder.1 — The flavor of clams, like that of oysters 
and other kinds of sea food, is offensive to some persons, but where 
this is not the case, clam chowder is a popular dish of high food 
value. This kind of soup is much used in localities where clams 
are plentiful. 

Clam Chowder 

(Sufficient to Serve Eight) 

1 c. water ^ c. diced celery 

1 qt. clams 1| c. milk 

1 small onion 2 Tb. butter 

1 c. sliced potatoes H tsp. salt 

I c. stewed tomatoes ^ tsp. pepper 

i c. diced carrots 
Add the water to the clams, and pick them over carefully to 
remove any shell. Strain the liquid through cheesecloth, and then 
scald the clams in it. Remove the clams and cook the vegetables in 
the liquid until they are soft. Add the milk, butter, salt, and pepper 
and return the clams. Heat thoroughly and serve over crackers. 

62. Fish Chowder. — An excellent way in which to utilize a 
small quantity of fish is afforded by fish chowder. In addition, this 
dish is quite high in food value, so that when it is served with 
crackers, little of anything else need be served with it to make an 
entire meal if it be luncheon or supper. Cod, haddock, or fresh- 
water fish may be used in the accompanying recipe. 

Fish Chowder 
(Sufficient to Serve Six) 

21b. fish U tsp. salt 

1 small onion i tsp. pepper 

1 c. sliced potatoes 2 Tb. butter 

^ c. stewed tomatoes H c. milk 

Skin the fish, remove the flesh, and cut it into small pieces. Sim- 
mer the head, bones, and skin of the fish and the onion in water 
for I hour. Strain, and add to this stock the fish, potatoes, toma- 
toes, salt, and pepper. Simmer together until the potatoes are soft. 
Add the butter and milk. Serve over crackers. 

63. Potato Chowder. — A vegetable mixture such as the one 
suggested in the accompanying recipe is in reality not a chowder, 
for this form of soup requires sea food for its basis. However, 



§ 9 SOUP 31 

when it is impossible to procure the sea food, potato chowder does 
nicely as a change from the usual soup. This chowder differs in 
no material way from soup stock in this form. 
Potato Chowder 

(Sufficient to Serve Four) 

1^ c. sliced potatoes 1 tsp. salt 

1 small onion, sliced ^ tsp. pepper 

1 c. water 2 Tb. iDutter 

1| c. milk 
Cook the potatoes and onion in the water until they are soft, but 
not soft enough to fall to pieces. Rub half of the potatoes through 
a sieve and return to the sliced ones. Add the milk, salt, pepper, and 
butter. Cook together for a few minutes and serve. 

64. Corn Chowder. — The addition of corn to potato chowder 
adds variety of flavor and makes a delicious mixture of vegetables. 
This dish is rather high in food value, especially if the soup is 
served over crackers. A small amount of tomato, although not 
mentioned in the recipe, may be added to this combination to 
improve the flavor. 

Corn Chowder 

(Sufficient to Serve Six) 

1 c. sliced potatoes 14 c. milk 

1 small onion, sliced 2 Tb. butter 

1 c. water 1 tsp. salt 

1 c. canned corn ^ tsp. pepper 

Cook the potatoes and onions in the water until they are soft. 

Add the corn, milk, butter, salt, and pepper, and cook together for 

a few minutes. Serve over crackers. 



SOUP ACCOMPANIMENTS AND GARNISHES 

65. The soup course of a meal is a more or less unattractive 
one, but it may be improved considerably if some tempting thing in 
the way of a garnish or an accompaniment is served with it. But 
whatever is selected to accompany soup should be, in a great 
measure, a contrast to it in both consistency and color. The reason 
why a difference in consistency is necessary is due to the nature of 
soup, which, being liquid in form, is merely swallowed and does not 
stimulate the flow of the gastric juices by mastication. Therefore, 
the accompaniment should be something that requires chewing and 
that will consequently cause the digestive juices, which respond to 



82 



SOUP 



^0 




the mechanical action of chewing, to flow. The garnish may add the 
color that is needed to make soup attractive. The green and red of 

olives and radishes or 

of celery and radishes 
make a decided con- 
trast, so that when any 
of these things are 
served with soup, an 
appetizing first course 
is the result. It is not 
necessary to serve more 
than one of them, but if celery and radishes or celery, radishes, 
and olives can be combined in the same relish dish, they become more 
attractive than when each is served by itself. 

66. Radishes and Celery. — Before radishes and celery are 
used on the table, whether with soup or some other part of a meal, 
they should be put into cold water and allowed to stand for some 
time, so that they will be perfectly crisp when they are served. In 
the case of radishes, the tops and roots should first be cut from 
them, and the radishes then scrubbed thoroughly. They may be 
served without any further treatment, or they may be prepared to 
resemble flowers, as is shown in Fig. 8. This may be done by peel- 
ing the red skin back to show the white inside, and then cutting the 
sections to look like the petals of a flower. Little difficulty will be 



H_ 








'^^ "-^Sbi 


u- *a 








%^ ^i 


^^^^5p^ 


iv% 


K 

^ 






^ 



experienced in preparing radishes in this artistic way if a sharp 
knife is used, for, with a little practice, the work can be done quickly 
and skilfully. 



§ 9 SOUP 33 

67. Celery that is to be served with soup may be prepared in two 
ways, as Fig. 9 illustrates. The stems may be pulled from the stalk 
and served separately, as in the group on the right, or the stalk may 
be cut down through the center with a knife into four or more 
pieces, as shown at the left of the illustration. The first of these 
methods is not so good as the second, for by it one person gets all 
of the tender heart and the coarse outside stems are left for all the 
others. By the second method, every piece consists of some of the 
heart and some of the outside stems attached to the root and makes 
a similar serving for each person. Whichever way is adopted, how- 
ever, the celery should be scrubbed and cleansed thoroughly. This 
is often a difficult task, because the dirt sticks tightly between the 
stems. Still, an efifort should be made to have the celery entirely 
free from dirt before it goes to the table. A few tender yellow 
leaves may be left on the pieces to improve the appearance of the 
celery. 

68. Crackers. — Various kinds of wafers and crackers can be 
purchased to serve with soup, and the selection, as well as the serving 
of them, is entirely a matter of individual taste. One point, how- 
ever, that must not be overlooked is that crackers of any kind must 
be crisp in order to be appetizing. Dry foods of this sort absorb 
moisture from the air when they are exposed to it and consequently 
become tough. As heat drives off this moisture and restores the 
original crispness, crackers should always be heated before they are 
served. Their flavor can be improved by toasting them until they 
are light brown in color. 

69. Croutons. — As has already been learned, croutons are 
small pieces of bread that have been fried or toasted to serve with 
soup. These are usually made in the form of cubes, or dice, as is 
shown in the front group in Fig. 10; but they may be cut into tri- 
angles, circles, ovals, hearts, or, in fact, any fancy shape, by means 
of small cutters that can be purchased for such purposes. The 
bread used for croutons should not be fresh bread, as such bread 
does not toast nor fry very well ; left-over toast, stale bread, or 
slices of bread that have been cut from the loaf and not eaten are 
usually found more satisfactory. If the croutons are not made from 
slices already cut, the bread should be cut into slices i to -J inch 
thick, and, after the crusts have been closely trimmed, the slices 
should be cut into cubes. When the cubes have been obtained, they 

WI-C3— 4 



34 SOUP § 9 

may be put into a shallow pan and toasted on all sides quickly, 
placed in a frying basket and browned in deep fat, or put into a 
frying pan and sauted in butter. If toast is used, it should merely 
be cut in the desired shape. 

Various methods of serving croutons are in practice. Some 
housewives prefer to place them in the soup tureen and pour the 
soup over them, while others like to put a few in each individual 
serving of soup. A better plan, however, and one that is much 
followed, is to serve a number of croutons on a small plate or dish 
at each person's place, as shown in Figs. 3 and 4, for then every one 
may eat them in the way preferred. 

70. Bread Sticks.^ — A soup accompaniment similar in nature 
to croutons, and known as bread sticks, is made of pieces of bread 
^ inch wide, ^ inch thick, and several inches long. These are toasted 




on each side and are served in place of crackers. A number of them 
are shown in the back row in Fig. 10. Variety in bread sticks may 
be secured by spreading butter over them before the toasting is 
begun or by sprinkling grated cheese over them a few minutes 
before they are removed from the oven. Bread sticks are usually 
served on a bread-and-butter plate to the left of each person's place 
at the table. 

71. Pastry Strips. — A very appetizing addition to soup may 
be made by cutting pastry into narrow strips and then baking these 
strips in the oven until they are brown or frying them in deep fat 
and draining them. Strips prepared in this way may be served in 
place of crackers, croutons, or bread sticks, and are considered 
delicious by those who are fond of pastry. Details regarding 
pastry are given in another Section. 



§ 9 sour 35 

72. Soup Fritters. — If an entirely different kind of soup 
accompaniment from those already mentioned is desired, soup frit- 
ters will no doubt find favor. These are made by combining certain 
ingredients to form a batter and then dropping small amounts of 
this into hot fat and frying them until they are crisp and brown. 
The accompanying recipe, provided it is followed carefully, will 
produce good results. 

Soup Fritters 

1 egg f tsp. salt 

2 Tb. milk | c. flour 

Beat the egg, and to it add the milk, salt, and flour. Drop the 
batter in tiny drops into hot fat, and fry until brown and crisp. 
Drain on paper and serve with the soup. 

73. Egg" Balls. — To serve with a soup that is well flavored 
but not highly nutritious, egg balls are very satisfactory. In addi- 
tion to supplying nutrition, these balls are extremely appetizing, and 
so they greatly improve a course that is often unattractive. Careful 
attention given to the ingredients and the directions in the accom- 
panying recipe will produce good results. 

Egg Balls 

3 yolks of hard-cooked eggs Salt and pepper 
I tsp. melted butter 1 uncooked yolk 

Mash the cooked yolks, and to them add the butter, salt, and 
pepper, and enough of the uncooked yolk to make the mixture of a 
consistency to handle easily. Shape into tiny balls. Roll in the 
white of egg and then in flour and saute in butter. Serve in the 
individual dishes of soup. 

74. Forcemeat Balls. — Another delicious form of accom- 
paniment that improves certain soups by adding nutrition is force- 
meat balls. These contain various nutritious ingredients combined 
into small balls, and the balls are then either sauted or fried in deep 
fat. They may be placed in the soup tureen or in each person's 
soup. 

Forcemeat Balls 

1 c. fine stale-bread crumbs ^ tsp. salt 

^ c. milk Few grains of pepper 

2 Tb. butter § c. breast of raw chicken or 
White of 1 egg raw fish 



36 SOUP § 9 

Cook the bread crumbs and milk to form a paste, and to this add 
the butter, beaten egg white, and seasonings. Pound the chicken 
or fish to a pulp, or force it through a food chopper and then 
through a puree strainer. Add this to the first mixture. Form 
into tiny balls. Roll in flour and either saute or fry in deep fat. 
Serve hot. 

75. American Forcemeat Balls. — A simple kind of force- 
meat balls may be made according to the accompanying recipe. The 
meat used may be sausage provided especially for the purpose or 
some that is left over from a previous meal. If it is not possible 
to obtain sausage, some other highly seasoned meat, such as ham 
first ground very fine and then pounded to a pulp, may be sub- 
stituted. 

American Forcemeat Balls 

1 Tb. butter 1 tsp. salt 

1 small onion ^ tsp. pepper 

1^ c. bread, without crusts Dash of nutmeg 

1 egg 1 Tb. chopped parsley 

l c. sausage meat 
Melt the butter in a saucepan and add the onion finely chopped. 
Fry for several minutes over the fire. Soak the bread in water until 
thoroughly softened and then squeeze out all the water. Mix with 
the bread the egg, salt, pepper, nutmeg, parsley, and meat, and to 
this add also the butter and fried onion. Form small balls of this 
mixture and saute them in shallow fat, fry them in deep fat, or, after 
brushing them over with fat, bake them in the oven. Place a few in 
each serving of soup. 



SOUP 



EXAMINATION QUESTIONS 

(1) (a) Mention the two purposes that soups serve in a meal, {b) What 
are the quaHties of a good soup? 

(2) (o) Mention the two general classes of soup, {b) Explain and illus- 
trate how to choose a soup. 

(3) Why is soup an economical dish? 

(4) (a) Explain in full the meaning of stock as applied to soup, (b) For 
what purposes other than soup making is stock used? 

(5) (a) What is the value of the stock pot? (b) What care should be 
given to it? 

(6) Alention some of the materials that may be put into the stock pot. 

(7) (a) Why are the tough cuts of meat more suitable for soup than the 
tender ones? (b) Name the pieces that are best adapted to soup making. 

(8) (fl) What proportion of bone to meat should be used in making soup 
from fresh meat? (b) For what two purposes are vegetables used in soup? 

(9) Explain briefly the making of stock from meat. 

(10) (c) Why should the cooking of the meat for stock be started with 
cold water rather than with hot water? (b) What disposal should be made of 
meat from which stock is made? 

(11) (a) Of what value are flavorings in the making of soups? (b) What 
precaution should be taken in the use of flavorings? 

(12) Explain how prease may be removed from soup. 

(13) How may soup be cleared? 

(14) (a) For what purposes is thickening used in soups? (b) Mention 
the materials most used to thicken soups. 

(15) What precaution should be taken to keep soup or stock from spoiling. 

(16) What point about the serving of soup should be observed if an appetiz- 
ing soup is desired ? 

(17) What kind of dish is used for serving: (a) thin soup? (b) thick 
soup ? 

§9 



2 SOUP §9 

(18) (a) What is a cream soup? (b) Give the general directions for 
making soup of this kind. 

(19) (a) How may the soup course of a meal be made more attractive? 
(b) In what ways should soup accompaniments be a contrast to the soup? 

(20) (a) Explain the making. of croutons, (b) What is the most satis- 
factory way in which to prepare celery that is to be served with soup? 



ADDITIONAL, WORK 

Plain and prepare a dinner menu from the recipes given in the lessons that 
you have studied. Submit the menu for this dinner and give the order in which 
you prepared the dishes. In addition, tell the number of persons you served, as 
well as what remained after the meal and whether or not you made use of it 
for another meal. Send this information with your answers to the Examina- 
tion Questions. 



MEAT 

(PART 1) 



MEAT IN THE DIET 



VALUE OF MEAT AS FOOD 

1. In its broadest sense, meat may be considered as "any clean, 
sound, dressed or properly prepared edible part of animals that are 
in good health at the time of slaughter," However, the flesh of 
carniverous animals — that is, animals that eat the flesh of other 
animals — is so seldom eaten by man, that the term meat is usually 
restricted to the flesh of all animals except these. But even this 
meaning of meat is too broad ; indeed, as the term is generally used it 
refers particularly to the flesh of the so-called domestic animals, and 
does not include poultry, game, fish, and the like. It is in this limited 
sense that meat is considered in these Sections, and the kinds to 
which attention is given are beef, veal, lamb, mutton, and pork. 
Meat, including these varieties, forms one of the principal sources 
of the family's food supply. As such, it is valuable chiefly as a 
food; but, in the form of broths and extracts made from it, meat 
stimulates the appetite and actually assists the flow of gastric juice. 
Therefore, so that the outlay for meat will not be greater than it 
should be and this food will provide the greatest amount of nourish- 
ment, every housewife should be thoroughly familiar with the place 
it occupies in the dietary. 

2. In the first place, it should be remembered that the food 
eaten by human beings comes from two sources — animal and vege- 
table. The foods of animal origin, which include milk, eggs, and 
meat, have a certain similarity that causes them to be classed together 
and this is the fact that they are high-protein foods. Milk is the 

COPYRIGHTED BY INTERNATIONAL EDUCATIONAL PUBLISHING COMPANY. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 

§10 



2 MEAT § 10 

first protein food fed to the young, but a little later it is partly 
replaced by eggs, and, finally, or in adult life, meat largely takes 
the place of both. For this reason, meat has considerable importance 
in the dietary. In reality, from this food is obtained the greatest 
amount of protein that the average person eats. However, it will 
be well to note that milk and eggs, as well as cheese and even cereals 
and vegetables, can be made to take the place of meat when the use 
of less of this food is deemed advisable. 

3. As the work of protein foods is to build and repair tissue, it 
is on them that the human race largely depends. Of course, protein 
also yields energy; but the amount is so small that if one variety 
of protein food, such as meat, were eaten simply to supply energy 
to the body, huge quantities of it would be needed to do the same 
work that a small amount of less expensive food would accomplish. 
Some persons have an idea that meat produces the necessary strength 
and energy of those who perform hard work. This is entirely 
erroneous, because fats and carbohydrates are the food substances 
that produce the energy required to do work. Some kind of protein 
is, of course, absolutely necessary to the health of every normal 
person, but a fact that cannot be emphasized too strongly is that an 
oversupply of it does more harm than good. 

Scientists have been trying for a long time to determine just how 
much of these tissue-building foods is necessary for individuals, 
but they have found this a difficult matter. Nevertheless, it is gener- 
ally conceded that most persons are likely to use too much rather 
than too little of them. It is essential then, not only from the stand- 
point of economy, but from the far more important principle of 
health, that the modern housewife should know the nutritive value 
of meats. 

4. In her efforts to familiarize herself with these matters, the 
housewife should ever remember that meat is the most expensive 
of the daily foods of a family. Hence, to get the greatest value for 
the money expended, meat must be bought judiciously, cared for 
properly, and prepared carefully. Too many housewives trust the 
not overscrupulous butcher to give them the kind of meat they 
should have, and very often they do not have a clear idea as to 
whether it is the best piece that can be purchased for the desired 
purpose and for the price that is asked. Every housewife ought to 
be so familiar with the various cuts of meat that she need not 



§ 10 MEAT 3 

depend on any one except herself in the purchase of this food. She 
will find that both the buying and the preparation of meats will be a 
simple matter for her if she learns these three important things : 
(1) From what part of the animal the particular piece she desires 
is cut and how to ask for that piece ; (2) how to judge a good piece 
of meat by its appearance; and (3) what to do with it from the 
moment it is purchased until the last bit of it is used. 

5. Of these three things, the cooking of meat is the one that 
demands the most attention, because it has a decided effect on the 
quality and digestibility of this food. Proper cooking is just as 
essential in the case of meat as for any other food, for a tender, 
digestible piece of meat may be made tough and indigestible by 
improper preparation, while a tough piece may be made tender and 
very appetizing by careful, intelligent preparation. The cheaper 
cuts of meat, which are often scorned as being too tough for use, 
may be converted into delicious dishes by the skilful cook who 
understands how to apply the various methods of cookery and 
knows what their effect will be on the meat tissues. 

6. Unfortunately, thorough cooking affects the digestibility of 
meat unfavorably; but it is doubtless a wise procedure in some 
cases because, as is definitely known, some of the parasites that 
attack man find their way into the system through the meat that 
is eaten. These are carried to meat from external sources, such as 
dust, flies, and the soiled hands of persons handling it, and they 
multiply and thrive. It is known, too, that some of the germs that 
cause disease in the animal remain in its flesh and are thus trans- 
mitted to human beings that eat such meat. If there is any question 
as to its good condition, meat must be thoroughly cooked, because 
long cooking completely eliminates the danger from such sources. 



STRUCTURE AND COMPOSITION OF MEAT 

7. An understanding of the physical structure of meat is essen- 
tial to its successful cooking. ]\Ieat consists of muscular tissue, or 
lean; varying quantities of visible fat that lie between and within 
the membranes and tendons; and also particles of fat that are too 
small to be distinguished except with the aid of a microscope. The 
general nature of the lean part of meat can be determined by exam- 



4 MEAT § 10 

ining a piece of it with merely the unaided eye. On close observation, 
it will be noted that, especially in the case of meat that has been 
cooked, innumerable threadlike fibers make up the structure. With 
a microscope, it can be observed that these visible fibers are made 
up of still smaller ones, the length of which varies in different parts 
of the animal. It is to the length of these fibers that the tenderness 
of meat is due. Short fibers are much easier to chew than long 
ones ; consequently, the pieces containing them are the most tender. 
These muscle fibers, which are in the form of tiny tubes, are filled 
with a protein substance. They are held together with a tough, 
stringy material called connective tissue. As the animal grows older 
and its muscles are used more, the walls of these tubes or fibers 
become dense and tough; likewise, the amount of connective tissue 
increases and becomes tougher. Among the muscle fibers are 
embedded layers and particles of fat, the quantity of which varies 
greatly in different animals and depends largely on the age of the 
animal. For instance, lamb and veal usually have very little fat 
in the tissues, mutton and beef always contain more, while pork 
contains a greater amount of fat than the meat of any other domestic 
animal. 

8. The composition of meat depends to a large extent on the 
breed of the animal, the degree to which it has been fattened, and 
the particular cut of meat in question. However, the muscle fibers 
are made up of protein and contain more protein, mineral salts, or 
ash, and certain substances called extractives, all of which are held 
in solution by water. The younger the animal, the greater is the 
proportion of water and the lower the nutritive value of meat. It 
should be understood, however, that not all of meat is edible 
material; indeed, a large part of it is made up of gristle, bones, 
cartilage, nerves, blood vessels, and connective tissue. The amount 
of these indigestible materials also varies in different animals and 
different cuts, but the average proportion in a piece of meat is 
usually considered to be 15 per cent, of the whole. Because of the 
variation of both the edible and inedible material of meat, a standard 
composition for this food cannot readily be given. However, an 
idea of the average composition of the various kinds can be obtained 
from Fig. 1. 

9. Protein in Meat. — The value of meat as food is due to the 
proteins that it contains. Numerous kinds of protein occur in meat. 



§10 



MEAT 



but the chief varieties are myosin and muscle albvmiin. The myosin, 
which is the most important protein and occurs in the greatest 



Chuck, medium fat 
Loin, medium fat 
Ribs, medium fat 
Round, very lean 
Roi'nd, medium fat 
Round, very fat 
Rump, medium fat 

Breast, medium fat 
Leg, medium fat 
Loin, medium fat 

Leg, medium fat 

Leg, medium fat 



lam, smok 



sacon, medium fat 
Refuse 



m 









'^:^m^ 



PI 



n 



Beef 



VEy^L 



Lamb 



Mutton 



Pork 



a "3 



Im^M '040 






6^..%'S] 895 



m?MM '275 



Wilgl "'0 



mM 740 







900 



gi§%Mi| l345 



mmmmi '"^ 



iiggi§pai '«5 



mmmmi^mim^ 



2795 



Protein 



Fat 



Ash 



quantity, hardens after the animal has been killed and the muscles 
have become cold. The tissues then become tough and hard, a con- 



6 MEAT § 10 

dition known as rigor mortis. As meat in this condition is not 
desirable, it should be used before rigor mortis sets in, or else it 
should be put aside until this condition of toughness disappears. 
The length of time necessary for this to occur varies with the size 
of the animal that is killed. It may be from 24 hours to 3 or 
4 days. The disappearance is due to the development of certain 
acids that cause the softening of the tissues. The albumin, which 
is contained in solution in the muscle fibers, is similar in composi- 
tion to the albumen of eggs and milk, and it is affected by the 
application of heat in the cooking processes in much the same way. 

10. Gelatine in Meat. — The gelatine that is found in meat 
is a substance very similar in composition to protein, but it has less 
value as food. It is contained in the connective tissue and can be 
extracted by boiling, being apparent as a jellylike substance after 
the water in which meat has been cooked has cooled. Use is made 
of this material in the preparation of pressed meats and fowl and 
in various salads and other cold-meat dishes. Some kinds of com- 
mercial gelatine are also made from it, being first extracted from the 
meat and then evaporated to form a dry substance. 

11. Fat in Meat. — All meat, no matter how lean it appears, 
contains some fat. As already explained, a part of the fat con- 
tained in meat occurs in small particles so embedded in the muscle 
fibers as not to be readily seen, while the other part occurs in suffi- 
ficient amounts to be visible. In the flesh of some animals, such as 
veal and rabbit, there is almost no visible fat, but in very fat hogs 
or fowls, one-third or one-half of the weight may be fat. Meats 
that are very fat are higher in nutritive value than meats that con- 
tain only a small amount of this substance, as will be observed on 
referring to the table of meat compositions in Fig. 1. However, 
an excessive amount of fat prevents the protein materials from 
digesting normally. 

The quality of fat varies greatly, there being two distinct kinds 
of this material in animals. That which covers or lies between the 
muscles or occurs on the outside of the body just beneath the skin 
has a lower melting point, is less firm, and is of a poorer grade for 
most purposes than that which is found inside the bony structure 
and surrounds the internal organs. The suet of beef is an example 
of this internal fat. 



§ 10 MEAT 7 

Fat is a valuable constituent of food, for it is the most concen- 
trated form in which the fuel elements of food are found. In 
supplying the body with fuel, it serves to maintain the body tem- 
perature and to yield energy in the form of muscular and other 
power. Since this is such a valuable food material, it is important 
that the best possible use be made of all drippings and left-over 
fats and that not even the smallest amount of any kind be wasted. 

12. Carbohydrate in Meat. — In the liver and all muscle 
fibers of animals is stored a small supply of carbohydrate in a form 
that is called glycogen, or muscle sugar. However, there is not 
enough of this substance to be of any appreciable value, and, so far 
as the methods of cookery and the uses of meat as food are con- 
cerned, it is of no importance. 

13. Water in Meat. — The proportion of water in meat varies 
from one-third to three-fourths of the whole, depending on the 
amount of fat the meat contains and the age of the animal. This 
water carries with it the flavor, much of the mineral matter, and 
some food material, so that when the water is removed from the 
tissues these things are to a great extent lost. The methods of 
cookery applied to meat are based on the principle of either retain- 
ing or extracting the water that it contains. The meat in which 
water is retained is more easily chewed and swallowed than that 
which is dry. However, the water contained in flesh has no greater 
value as food than other water. Therefore, as will be seen in 
Fig. 1, the greater the amount of water in a given weight of food, 
the less is its nutritive value. 

14. Minerals in Meat. — Eight or more kinds of minerals 
in sufficient quantities to be of importance in the diet are to be found 
in meat. Lean meat contains the most minerals ; they decrease in 
proportion as the amount of fat increases. These salts assist in the 
building of hard tissues and have a decided effect on the blood. 
They are lost from the tissues of meat by certain methods of cook- 
ery, but as they are in solution in the water in which the meat is 
cooked, they need not be lost to the diet if use is made of this water 
for soups, sauces, and gravies. 

15. Extractives in Meat. — The appetizing flavor of meat is 
due to substances called extractives. The typical flavor that serves 
to distinguish pork from beef or mutton is due to the difference in 



8 MEAT §10 

the extractives. Although necessary for flavoring, these have no 
nutritive vaUie ; in fact, the body throws them off as waste material 
when they are taken with the food. In some methods of cookery, 
such as broihng and roasting, the extractives are retained, while in 
others, such as those employed for making stews and soups, they 
are drawn out. 

Extractives occur in the greatest quantity in the muscles that the 
animal exercises a great deal and that in reality have become tough. 
Likewise, a certain part of an old animal contains more extractives 
than the same part of a young one. For these reasons a very young 
chicken is broiled while an old one is used for stew, and ribs of beef 
are roasted while the shins are used for soup. 

Meat that is allowed to hang and ripen develops compounds that 
are similar to extractives and that impart additional flavor. A 
ripened steak is usually preferred to one. cut from an animal that 
has been killed only a short time. However, as the ripening is in 
reality a decomposition process, the meat is said to become "high" 
if it is allowed to hami too lon<j. 



PURCHASE AND CARE OF MEAT 

16. Purcliase of Meat. — Of all the money that is spent for 
food in the United States nearly one-third is spent for meat. This 
proportion is greater than that of any European country and is 
probably more than is necessary to provide diets that are properly 
balanced. If it is found that the meat bill is running too high, one 
or more of several things may be the cause. The one who does the 
purchasing may not understand the buying of meat, the cheaper cuts 
may not be used because of a lack of knowledge as to how they 
should be prepared to make them appetizing, or more meat may 
be served than is necessary to supply the needs of the family. 

Much of this difficulty can be overcome if the person purchasing 
meat goes to the market personally to see the meat cut and weighed 
instead of telephoning the order. It is true, of course, that the 
method of cutting an animal varies in different parts of the country, 
as does also the naming of the different pieces. However, this need 
give the housewife no concern, for the dealer from whom the meat 
is purchased is usually willing to supply any information that is 
desired about the cutting of meat and the best use for certain pieces. 



§ 10 MEAT 9 

In fact, if the butcher is competent, this is a very good source from 
which to obtain a knowledge of such matters. 

Another way in which to reduce the meat bill is to utilize the 
trimmings of bone and fat from pieces of meat. In most cases, 
these are of no value to the butcher, so that if a request for them is 
made, he will, as a rule, be glad to wrap them up with the meat 
that is purchased. They are of considerable value to the housewife, 
for the bones may go into the stock pot, while the fat, if it is tried 
out, can be used for many things. 

17. The quantity of meat to purchase depends, of course, on the 
number of persons that are to be served with it. However, it is 
often a good plan to purchase a larger piece than is required for a 
single meal and then use what remains for another meal. For 
instance, a large roast is always better than a small one, because it 
does not dry out in the process of cookery and the part that remains 
after one meal may be served cold in slices or used for making some 
other dish, such as meat pie or hash. Such a plan also saves both 
time and fuel, because sufficient meat for several meals may be 
cooked at one time. 

In purchasing meat, there are certain pieces that should never be 
asked for by the pound or by the price. For instance, the house- 
wife should not say to the butcher, "Give me 2 povmds of porter- 
house steak," nor should she say, "Give me 25 cents worth of 
chops." Steak should be bought by the cut, and the thickness that 
is desired should be designated. For example, the housewife may 
ask for an inch-thick sirloin steak, a 2-inch porterhouse steak, and 
so on. Chops should be bought according to the number of persons 
that are to be served, usually a chop to a person being quite suffi- 
cient. Rib roasts should be bought by designating the number of 
ribs. Thus, the housewife may ask for a rib roast containing two, 
three, four, or more ribs, depending on the size desired. Roasts 
from other parts of beef, such as chuck or rump roasts, may be cut 
into chunks of almost any desirable size without working a disad- 
vantage to either the butcher or the customer, and may therefore be 
bought by the pound. Round bought for steaks should be purchased 
by the cut, as are other steaks; or, if an entire cut is too large, it 
may be purchased as upper round or lower round, but the price 
paid should vary with the piece that is purchased. Round bought 
for roasts, however, may be purchased by the pound. 



10 MEAT § 10 

18. Care of Meat in the Market. — Animal foods decompose 
more readily than any other kind, and the products of their decom- 
position are extremely dangerous to the health. It is therefore a 
serious matter when everything that comes in contact with meat is 
not clean. Regarding the proper care of meat, the sanitary condition 
of the market is the first consideration. The light and ventilation of 
the room and the cleanliness of the walls, floors, tables, counters, and 
other equipment are points of the greatest importance and should 
be noted by the housewife when she is purchasing meat. Whether 
the windows and doors are screened and all the meat is carefully 
covered during the fly season are also matters that should not be 
overlooked. Then, too, the cleanliness and physical condition of 
the persons who handle the meat should be of as great concern as 
the sanitary condition of the market. The housewife who desires 
to supply her family with the safest and cleanest meat should 
endeavor to purchase it in markets where all the points pertaining 
to the sanitary condition are as ideal as possible. If she is at all 
doubtful as to the freshness and cleanliness of what is sold to her, 
she should give it thorough cooking in the process of preparation so 
that no harm will be done to the persons who are to eat it. 

19. Care of Meat in the Home. — Because of the perishable 
nature of meat, the care given it in the market must be continued 
in the home in order that no deterioration may take place before it 
is cooked. This is not much of a problem during cold weather, but 
through the summer months a cool place in which to keep it must 
be provided unless the meat can be cooked very soon after it is 
delivered. Meat that must be shipped long distances is frozen 
before it is shipped and is kept frozen until just before it is used. 
If such meat is still frozen when it enters the home, it should not 
be put into a warm place, for then it will thaw too quickly. Instead, 
it should be put in the refrigerator or in some place where the 
temperature is a few degrees above freezing point, so that it will 
thaw slowly and still remain too cold for bacteria to become active. 

Even if meat is not frozen, it must receive proper attention after 
it enters the home. As soon as it is received, it should be removed 
from the wrapping paper or the wooden or cardboard dish in which 
it is delivered. If the meat has not been purchased personally, it 
is advisable to weigh it in order to verify the butcher's bill. When 
the housewife is satisfied about the weight, she should place the 



§ 10 MEAT 11 

meat in an earthenware, china, or enameled bowl, cover it, and then 
put it away in the coolest available place until it is used. Some 
persons put salt on meat when they desire to keep it, but this prac- 
tice should be avoided, as salt draws out the juices from raw meat 
and hardens the tissues to a certain extent. 

If such precautions are taken with meat, it will be in good con- 
dition when it is to be cooked. However, before any cooking 
method is applied to it, it should always be wiped with a clean, 
damp cloth. In addition, all fat should be removed, except just 
enough to assist in cooking the meat and give it a good flavor. Bone 
or tough portions may also be removed if they can be used to better 
advantage for soups or stews. 



COOKING OF MEAT 



PURPOSES OF COOKIIVG MEAT 

20. It is in the preparation of food, and of meat in particular, that 
one of the marked differences between tmcivilized and civilized man 
is evident. Raw meat, which is preferred by the savage, does not 
appeal to the appetite of most civilized persons ; in fact, to the 
majority of them the idea of using it for food is disgusting. There- 
fore, civilized man prepares his meat before eating it, and the higher 
his culture, the more perfect are his methods of preparation. 

While it is probably true that most of the methods of cookery 
render meat less easy to digest than in its raw condition, this dis- 
advantage is offset by the several purposes for which this food is 
cooked. Meat is cooked chiefly to loosen and soften the connective 
tissue and thus cause the muscle tissues to be exposed more fully 
to the action of the digestive juices. Another important reason for 
cooking meat is that subjecting it to the action of heat helps to kill 
bacteria and parasites. In addition, meat is cookjsd to make it more 
attractive to the eye and to develop and improve its flavor. 



METHODS OF COOKING MEAT 

21. The result desired when meat is cooked has much to do 
with the method of cookery to choose, for different methods pro- 
duce different results. To understand this, it will be necessary to 

WI-C3-S 



12 MEAT §10 

know just what the action of cooking is on the material that meat 
contains. When raw meat is cut, the tiny meat fibers are laid open, 
with the result that, in the application of the cooking process, the 
albuminous material either is lost, or, like the albumen of eggs, is 
coagulated, or hardened, and thus retained. Therefore, before pre- 
paring a piece of meat, the housewife should determine which of 
these two things she wishes to accomplish and then proceed to carry 
out the process intelligently. 

The methods of cookery that may be applied to meat include broil- 
ing, pan broiling, roasting, stewing or simmering, braizing, frying, 
sauteing, and fricasseeing. All of these methods are explained in 
a general way in Essentials of Cookery, Part 1, but explanations 
of them as they apply to meat are here given in order to acquaint 
the housewife with the advantages and disadvantages of the various 
ways by which this food can be prepared. 

22. Broiling: and Pan Broiling-. — Only such cuts of meats 
as require short cooking can be prepared by the methods of broiling 
and pan broiling. To carry out these methods successfully, severe 
heat must be applied to the surface of the meat so that the albumin 
in the ends of the muscle fibers may be coagulated at once. This 
prevents, during the remainder of the preparation, a loss of the 
meat juices. 

Meat to which either of these methods is applied will be indiges- 
tible on the surface and many times almost uncooked in the center, 
as in the case of rare steak. Such meat, however, is more digestible 
than thin pieces that are thoroughly cooked at the very high temper- 
ature required for broiling. 

23. Roasting-. — The process of roasting, either in the oven or 
in a pot on top of the stove, to be properly done, requires that the 
piece of meat to be roasted must first be seared over the entire sur- 
face by the application of severe heat. In the case of a pot roast, the 
searing can be done conveniently in the pot before the pot-roasting 
process begins. If the meat is to be roasted in the oven, it may be 
seared first in a pan on top of the stove. However, it may be seared 
to some extent by placing it in a very hot oven and turning it over 
so that all the surface is exposed. Then, to continue the roasting 
process, the temperature must be lowered just a little. 

The roasting pan may be of any desirable size and shape that is 
convenient and sufficiently large to accommodate the meat to be 



§10 



MEAT 



13 




prepared. A pan like that shown in Fig. 2 is both convenient and 
satisfactory. It is provided with a cover that fits tight. In this 
cover, as shown, is an opening that may be closed or opened so as 
to regulate the amount of moisture inside the pan. In the bottom 
of the pan is a rack upon which the meat may rest. 

24. To prepare meat for roasting, flour should be sprinkled or 
rubbed over its lean surface before it is put in the pan. This forms 
a paste that cooks into a crust and prevents the loss of juices from 
the meat. In roasting, the heat 
is applied longer and more slowly 
than in broiling or frying, so 
that there is more possibility for 
the connective tissue beneath the 
surface to soften. The surface 
is, however, as indigestible as 
that of broiled meat. 

An important point for every 
housewife to remember in this 
connection is that the larger the 
roast the slower should be the ^'°- ^ 

fire. This is due to the fact that long before the heat could penetrate 
to the center, the outside would be burned. A small roast, however, 
will be more delicious if it is prepared with a very hot fire, for then 
the juices will not have a chance to evaporate and the tissues will 
be more moist and tasty. 

25. Frying and Sauteing. — When meat is fried or sauted, 
that is, brought directly in contact with hot fat, it is made doubly 
indigestible, because of the hardening of the surface tissues and the 
indigestibility of the fat that penetrates these tissues. This is 
especially true of meat that is sauted slowly in a small quantity of 
hot fat. Much of this difficulty can be overcome, however, if meat 
prepared by these methods, like that which is broiled or roasted, is 
subjected quickly to intense heat. In addition, the fat used for 
cooking should be made hot before the meat is put into it. 

26. Boiling. — To boil meat means to cook it a long time in 
water at a temperature of 212 degrees Fahrenheit. This method 
of preparing meat is not strongly advocated, for there is seldom a 
time when better results cannot be obtained by cooking meat at a 
lower temperature than boiling point. The best plan is to bring the 



14 MEAT §10 

meat to the boiling point, allow it to boil for a short time, and then 
reduce the temperature so that the meat will simmer for the remain- 
der of the cooking. 

In cooking meat by boiling, a grayish scum appears on the surface 
just before the boiling point is reached. This scum is caused by 
the gradual extraction of a part of the soluble albumin that is present 
in the hollow fibers of the muscle tissue. After its extraction, it is 
coagulated by the heat in the water. As it coagulates and rises, it 
carries with it to the top particles of dirt and other foreign material 
present in the water or on the surface of the meat. In addition, this 
scum contains a little blood, which is extracted and coagulated and 
which tends to make it grayish in color. Such scum should be 
skimmed off, as it is unappetizing in appearance. 

27. Whether the meat should be put into cold water or boiling 
water depends on the result that is desired. It is impossible to make 
a rich, tasty broth and at the same time have a juicy, well-flavored 
piece of boiled meat. If meat is cooked for the purpose of making 
soup or broth, it should be put into cold water and then brought to a 
boil. By this method, some of the nutritive material and much of 
the flavoring substance will be drawn out before the water becomes 
hot enough to harden them. However, in case only the meat is to be 
used, it should be plunged directly into boiling water in order to 
coagulate the surface at once, as in the application of dry heat. If 
it is allowed to boil for 10 minutes or so and the temperature then 
reduced, the coating that is formed will prevent the nutritive material 
and the flavor from being lost to any great extent. But if the action 
of the boiling water is permitted to continue during the entire time 
of cooking, the tissues will become tough and dry. 

28. Stewing or Simmering. — The cheap cuts of meat, which 
contain a great deal of flavor and are so likely to be tough, cannot 
be prepared by the quick methods of cookery nor by the application 
of high temperature, for the result would be a tough, indigestible, 
and unpalatable dish. The long, slow cooking at a temperature 
lower than boiling point, which is known as stewing or simmering, 
should be applied. In fact, no better method for the preparation of 
tough pieces of meat and old fowl can be found than this process, 
for by it the connective tissue and the muscle fibers are softened. 
If the method is carried out in a tightly closed vessel and only 
a small amount of liquid is used, there is no appreciable loss of 



§ 10 MEAT 15 

flavor except that carried into the Hquid in which the meat cooks. 
But since such Hquid is always used, the meat being usually served 
in it, as in the case of stews, there is no actual loss. 

To secure the best results in the use'bf this method, the meat 
should be cut into small pieces so as to expose as much surface as 
possible. Then the pieces should be put into cold water rather than 
hot, in order that much of the juices and flavoring materials may be 
dissolved. When this has been accomplished, the temperature should 
be gradually raised until it nearly reaches the boiling point. If it is 
kept at this point for several hours, the meat will become tender and 
juicy and a rich, tasty broth will also be obtained. 

29. Braizing-. — Meat cooked by the method of braizing, whic"l\ 
is in reality a combination of stewing and baking, is first subjected 
to the intense dry heat of the oven and then cooked slowly in the 
steam of the water that surrounds it. To cook meat in this way, a 
pan must be used that will permit the meat to be raised on a rack 
that extends above a small quantity of water. By this method a 
certain amount of juice from the meat is taken up by the water, 
but the connective tissue is well softened unless the cooking is done 
at too high a temperature. 

30. Fricasseeing. — As has already been learned, fricasseemg 
is a combination of sauteing and stewing. The sauteing coagulates 
the surface proteins and prevents, to some extent, the loss of flavor 
that would occur in the subsequent stewing if the surface were not 
hardened. To produce a tender, tasty dish, f ricasseeing should be a 
long, slow process. This method is seldom applied to tender, expen- 
sive cuts of meat and to young chickens, but is used for fowl and for 
pieces of meat that would not make appetizing dishes if prepared by 
a quicker method. 

TIME REQIIRED FOR COOIvIlVG 3IEAT 

31. The length of time required for cooking various kinds of 
meat is usually puzzling to those inexperienced in cookery. The 
difference between a dry, hard beef roast and a tender, moist, juicy 
one is due to the length of time allowed for cooking. Overdone 
meats of any kind are not likely to be tasty. Therefore, it should 
be remembered that when dry heat is used, as in baking, roasting, 
broiling, etc., the longer the heat is applied the greater will be the 
evaporation of moisture and the consequent shrifikage in the meat. 



16 MEAT § 10 

A general rule for cooking meat in the oven is to allow 15 minutes 
for each pound and 15 minutes extra. If it is to be cooked by broil- 
ing, allow 10 minutes for each pound and 10 minutes extra; by boil- 
ing, 20 minutes for each pound and 20 minutes extra ; and by 
simmering, 30 minutes for each pound. In Table I is given the 
number of minutes generally allowed for cooking 1 pound of each 
of the various cuts of beef, veal, mutton, lamb, and pork by the 
different cookery methods. This table should be referred to in 
studying the two Sections pertaining to meat. 

TABLE I 

TIMK TABLE FOR COOIvIlVG MEATS 

T., ,. „ ,^- TiMK Per Pound 

Name of Cut Cookery Method -.^ 

Minutes 
Beef 

Round Roasting 12 to IS 

Ribs Roasting, well done 12 to 15 

Ribs Roasting, rare 8 to 10 

Rump Roasting 12 to 15 

Sirloin Roasting, rare 8 to 10 

Rolled roast Roasting 12 to 15 

Steaks Broiling, well done 12 to 15 

Steaks Broiling, rare 8 to 10 

Fresh beef Boiling 20 to 25 

Corned beef Boiling 25 to 30 

Any cut Simmering 30 

Chuck Braizing 25 to 30 

Veal 

Leg Roasting 20 

Chops or steak Broiling 8 to 30 

Shoulder .Braizing 30 to 40 

Mutton 

Leg Roasting 15 to 20 

Shoulder Roasting 15 to 20 

Leg J5raizing 40 to 50 

Leg Boiling 15 to 25 

Chops Broiling 10 to 12 

Lamb 

Loin or saddle Roasting 15 to 20 

Leg Roasting 15 to 20 

Chops Broiling 8 to 10 

Pork 

Shoulder or ribs Roasting 20 to 25 

Ham Boiled 20 to 30 

Chops Broiled 8 to 10 



§ 10 MEAT 17 



BEEF 



GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BEEF 

32. As is generally known, beef is the flesh of a slaughtered 
steer, cow, or other adult bovine animal. These animals may be sold 
to be slaughtered as young as 1^ to 2 years old, but beef of the best 
quality is obtained from them when they are from 3 to 4 years of 
age. Ranging from the highest quality down to the lowest, beef 
is designated by the butcher as prime, extra fancy, fancy, extra 
choice, choice, good, and poor. In a market where trade is large and 
varied, it is possible to make such use of meat as to get a higher price 
for the better qualities than can be obtained in other markets. 

33. When the quality of beef is to be determined, the amount, 
quality, and color of the flesh, bone, and fat must be considered. 
The surface of a freshly cut piece of beef should be bright red in 
color. When it is exposed to the air for some time, the action of the 
air on the blood causes it to become darker, but even this color should 
be a good clear red. Any unusual color is looked on with suspicion 
by a person who understands the requirements of good meat. To 
obtain beef of the best quality, it should be cut crosswise of the 
fiber. In fact, the way in which meat is cut determines to a great 
extent the difference between tender and tough meat and, conse- 
quently, the price that is charged. This difference can be readily 
seen by examining the surface of a cut. It will be noted that the 
tender parts are made up of short fibers that are cut directly across 
at right angles with the surface of the meat, while the tougher parts 
contain long fibers that run either slanting or aliiiost parallel to the 
surface. 

34. The amount of bone and cartilage m proportion to meat in 
a cut of beef usually makes a difference in price and determines the 
usefulness of the piece to the housewife. Therefore, these are 
matters that should be carefully considered. For instance, a certain 
cut of beef that is suitable for a roast may cost a few cents less than 
another cut, but if its proportion of bone to meat is greater than in 



18 



MEAT 



10 



the more expensive piece, nothing is gained by purchasing it. Bones, 
however, possess some value and can be utihzed in various ways. 
Those containing marrozv, which is the soft tissue found in the 
cavities of bones and composed largely of fat, are more valuable 
for soup making and for stews and gravies than are solid bones. 

In young beef in good condition, the fat is creamy white in color. 
However, as the animal grows older, the color grows darker until 
it becomes a deep yellow. 

Besides the flesh, bone, and fat, the general shape and thick- 
ness of a piece of beef should be noted when its quality is to be 
determined. In addition, its adaptability to the purpose for which 
it is selected and the method of cookery to be used in its preparation 
are also points that should not be overlooked. 



CUTS OF BEEF 



METHOD OF OBTAIXIXG CUTS 

35. With the general characteristics of beef well in mind, the 
housewife is prepared to learn of the way in which the animal is 




cut to produce the different pieces that she sees in the Imtcher shop 
and the names that are iriven to the various cuts. The cutting of 



10 



MEAT 



19 



the animal, as well as the naming of the pieces, varies in different 
localities, but the difference is not sufficient to be confusing. There- 
fore, if the information here given is thoroughly mastered, the 
housewife will be able to select meat intelligently in whatever section 




of the country she may reside. An important point for her to 
remember concerning meat of any kind is that the cheaper cuts are 
found near the neck, legs, and shins, and that the pieces increase in 
price as they go toward the back. 



20 MEAT § 10 

36. The general method of cutting up a whole beef into large 
cuts is shown in Fig. 3. After the head, feet, and intestines are 
removed, the carcass is cut down along the spine and divided into 
halves. Each half includes an entire side and is known as a side of 
beef. Then each side is divided into fore and hind quarters along 
the diagonal line that occurs about midway between the front and the 
back. It is in this form that the butcher usually receives the beef. 
He first separates it into the large pieces here indicated and then 
cuts these pieces into numerous smaller ones having names that 
indicate their location. For instance, the piece marked a includes 
the chuck; h, the rihs; c, the loin; d, the round; e, the flank; f, the 
plate ; and g, the shin. 

37. The cuts that are obtained from these larger pieces are 
shown in Fig. 4. For instance, from the chuck, as illustrated in (o), 
are secured numerous cuts, including the neck, shoulder clod, shoul- 
der, and chuck ribs. The same is true of the other pieces, as a 
careful study of these illustrations will reveal. Besides indicating 
the various cuts, each one of these illustrations serves an additional 
purpose. From (a), which shows the skeleton of the beef, the 
amount and the shape of the bone that the various cuts contain can 
be readily observed. From {h), which shows the directions in which 
the surface muscle fibers run, can be told whether the cutting of the 
pieces is done across the fibers or in the same direction as the fibers. 
Both of these matters are of such importance to the housewife that 
constant reference to these illustrations should be made until the 
points that they serve to indicate are thoroughly understood. 



NAMES AND rSES OF CUTS 

38. So that a still better idea may be formed of the pieces into 
which a side of beef may be cut, reference should be made to 
Fig. 5. The heavy line through the center shows where the side is 
divided in order to cut it into the fore and hind quarters. As will 
be observed, the fore quarter includes the chuck, prime ribs, and 
whole plate, and the hind quarter, the loin and the round, each of 
these large pieces being indicated by a different color. 

To make these large pieces of a size suitable for sale to the con- 
sumer, the butcher cuts each one of them into still smaller pieces, 
all of which are indicated in the illustration. The names of these 




§10 



10 



MEAT 



21 



cuts, together with their respective uses, and the names of the beef 
organs and their uses, are given in Table II. 

TABLE II 

CUTS OBTAINKD FROM A SIDE OF BKEF AND THEIR USES 

Name of 
Large Piece 



Name of Cut 



Uses of Cuts 



Chuck 



Prime Ribs. . 
Whole Plate. 



/Plate 
[Navel 



Neck Soups, broths, stews 

Shoulder clod Soups, broths, stews, boiling, 

corning 
Ribs (11th, 12t]i, and 13th).r)rown stews, braizing, poor roasts 

Ribs (9th and lOih ) Braizing, roasts 

Shoulder Soups, stews, corning, roast 

Cross-ribs Roast 

Brisket Suups, stews, corning 

Shin - Soups 

Ribs (1st to 8th, inclusive) .Roasts 

Soups, stews, corning 

Soups, stews, corning 

Short steak Steaks, roasts 

Porterhouse cuts Steaks, roasts 

Hip-bone steak Steaks, roasts 

Flat-bone steak Steaks, roasts 

■ Round-bone steak Steaks, roasts 

Sirloin Steaks 

Top sirloin Roasts 

Flank Rolled steak, braizing, boiling 

Tenderloin Roast 

Rump Roasts, corning 

Upper round Steaks, roasts 

Round •( Lower round Steaks, pot roasts, stews 

Vein Stews, soups 

Shank Soups 

{Liver Broiling, frying 
Heart Baking, braizing 
Tongue Boiling, baking, braizing 
Tail Soup 

39. As will be observed from Fig. 5, the ribs are numbered in 
the opposite direction from the way in which they are ordinarily 
counted ; that is, the first rib in a cut of beef is the one farthest from 
the head and the thirteenth is the one just back of the neck. The 
first and second ribs are called the hack ribs; the third, fourth, fifth, 
and sixth, the middle ribs. To prepare the ribs for sale, they are 
usually cut into pieces that contain two ribs, the first and second 



22 MEAT § 10 

ribs being known as the first cut, the third and fourth as the second 
cut, etc. After being sawed across, the rib bones are either left in 
to make a standing rib roast or taken out and the meat then rolled 
and fastened together with skewers to make a rolled roast. Skezvcrs, 
which are long wooden or metal pins that may be pushed through 
meat to fasten it together, will be found useful to the housewife in 
preparing many cuts of meat for cooking. They may usually be 
obtained at a meat market or a hardware store. 

40. Certain of the organs of beef are utilized to a considerable 
extent, so that while they cannot be shown in Fig. 5, they are 
included in Table II. The heart and the tongue are valuable both 
because they are economical and because they add variety to the 
meat diet of the family. The tongue, either smoked or fresh, may 
be boiled and then served hot, or it may be pickled in vinegar and 
served cold. The heart may be prepared in the same way, or it may 
be stuffed and then baked. The tail of beef makes excellent soup 
and is much used for this purpose. 



COOKING OF BEEF 



STEAKS AND THEIR PREPARATION 

41. Steaks Obtained From the Loin.^ — The way in which a 
loin of beef is cut into steaks is shown in Fig. 6. From a to & are 
cut Delmonico steaks; from h to c, porfcrJwuse steaks; from c to d, 
hip-bone steaks; from d to e, flat-bone steaks; and from e to /, sir- 
loin steaks. The loin is cut from the rump at / and from the flank 
and plate at h to j. When steaks are cut from the flesh of animals 
in good condition, they are all very tender and may be used for the 
quick methods of cookery, such as broiling. A very good idea of 
what each of these steaks looks like can be obtained from Figs. 7 
to 11, inclusive. Each of these illustrations shows the entire section 
of steak, as well as one steak cut from the piece. 

Delmonico steak, which is shown in Fig. 7, is the smallest 
steak that can be cut from the loin and is therefore an excellent cut 
for a small family. It contains little or no tenderloin. Sometimes 
c'his steak is wrongly called a club steak, but no confusion will result 



24 



MEAT 



§10 



if it is remembered that a club steak is a porterhouse steak that has 
most of the bone and the flank end, or "tail," removed. 

Porterhouse steak, which is illustrated in Fig 8, contains more 




tenderloin than any other steak. This steak also being small in size 
is a very good cut for a small number of persons. 

Hip-bone steak, shown in P'ig. 9, contains a good-sized piece of 




tenderloin. Steak of this kind finds much favor, as it can be served 
quite advantageously. 

Flat-bone steak, as shown in Fig. 10, has a large bone, but it 
also contains a considerable amount of fairly solid meat. When a 



§10 



MEAT 



large number of persons are to be served, this is a very good steak 
to select. 

Sirloin steak is shown in Fig. 11. As will be observed, this 
steak contains more solid meat than any of the other steaks cut from 




the loin. For this reason, it serves a large number of persons more 
advantageously than the others do. 

42. Steaks Obtained From the Round. — AMiile the steaks 




cut from the loin are usually preferred because of their tenderness, 
those cut from the upper round and across the rump are very desir- 
able for many purposes. If these are not so tender as is desired, the 



26 



MEAT 



§10 



surface may be chopped with a dull knife in order to make tiny cuts 
through the fibers, or it may be pounded with some blunt object, as, 
for instance, a wooden potato masher. In Fig. 12, the entire round 




Fig. 11 

and the way it is sometimes subdivided into the upper and lower 
round are shown. What is known as a round steak is a slice that 
is cut across the entire round. However, such a steak is often cut 




into two parts where the line dividing the round is shown, and 
either the upper or the lower piece may be purchased. The upper 
round is the better piece and brings a higher price than the whole 



§ 10 MEAT 27 

round or the lower round including the vein. The quick methods 
of cookery may be applied to the more desirable cuts of the round, 
but the lower round or the vein is generally used for roasting, braiz- 
ing, or stewing. 

43. Broiled Beefsteak. — As has already been explained, the 
steaks cut from the loin are the ones that are generally used for 
broiling. When one of these steaks is to be broiled, it should never 
be less than 1 inch thick, but it may be from 1 to 2| inches in thick- 
ness, according to the preference of the persons for whom it is pre- 
pared. As the flank end, or "tail," of such steaks is always tough, 
it should be cut off before cooking and utilized in the making of 
soups and such dishes as require chopped meats. In addition, all 
superfluous fat should be removed and then tried out. Beef fat, 
especially if it is mixed with lard or other fats, makes excellent 
shortening ; likewise, it may be used for sauteing various foods. 

When a steak has been prepared in this manner, wipe it carefully 
with a clean, damp cloth. Heat the broiler very hot and grease the 
rack with a little of the beef fat. Then place the steak on the rack, 
expose it directly to the rays of a very hot fire, and turn it every 
10 seconds until each side has been exposed several times to the 
blaze. This is done in order to sear the entire surface and thus 
prevent the loss of the juice. When the surface is sufficiently 
seared, lower the fire or move the steak to a cooler place on the 
stove and then, turning it frequently, allow it to cook more slowly 
until it reaches the desired condition. The broiling of a steak 
requires from 10 to 20 minutes, depending on its thickness and 
whether it is preferred well done or rare. Place the broiled steak 
on a hot platter, dot it with butter, season it with salt and pepper, 
and serve at once. 

44. Pan-Broiled Steak. — If it is impossible to prepare the 
steak in a broiler, it may be pan-broiled. In fact, this is a very 
satisfactory way to cook any of the tender cuts. To carry out this 
method, place a heavy frying pan directly over the fire and allow it 
to become so hot that the fat will smoke when put into it. Grease 
the pan with a small piece of the beef fat, just enough to prevent 
the steak from sticking fast. Put the steak into the hot pan and 
turn it as soon as it is seared on the side that touches the pan. After 
it is seared on the other side, turn it again and continue to turn it 
frequently until it has broiled for about 15 minutes. When it is 

WI-C3-6 



28 



MEAT 



§10 



cooked sufficiently to serve, dot it with butter and season it with salt 
and pepper. Serve hot. 

45. Rolled Steak, or Mock Duck. — To have a delicious 
meat, it is not always necessary to secure the tender, expensive cuts, 
for excellent dishes can be prepared from the cheaper pieces. For 
instance, steaks cut from the entire round or thin cuts from the 
rump can be filled with a stuffing and then rolled to make rolled 
steak, or, mock duck. This is an extremely appetizing dish and 
affords the housewife a chance to give her family a pleasing variety 
in the way of meat. The steak used for this purpose should first be 
broiled in the way explained in Art. 43. Then it should be filled 
with a stuffing made as follows : 

Stuffing for Rolled Steak 
1 qt. stale bread crumbs 1 c. stewed tomatoes 

1 small onion 1 Tb. salt 

2 Tb. butter i Tb. pepper 
1 c. hot water 

Mix all together. Pile on top of the broiled steak and roll the 
steak so that the edges lap over each other and the dressing is 




completely covered. Fasten together with skewers or tie by wrap- 
ping a cord around the roll. Strips of bacon or salt pork tied to 
the outside or fastened with small skewers improve the flavor of 
the meat. Place in a roasting pan and bake in a hot oven until the 
steak is thoroughly baked. This will require not less than 40 min- 
utes. Cut into slices and serve hot. 



§ 10 MEAT 29 

46. Skirt Steak. — Lying inside the ribs and extending from 
the second or third rib to the breast bone is a thin strip of muscle 
known as a skirt steak. This is removed before the ribs are cut for 
roasts, and, as shown in Fig. 13, is sht through the center with a long, 
sharp knife to form a pocket into which stuffing can be put. As a 
skirt steak is not expensive and has excellent flavor, it is a very 
desirable piece of meat. 

To prepare such a steak for the table, stuff:' it with the stuffing 
given for rolled steak in Art. 45, and then fasten the edges together 
with skewers. Bake in a hot oven until the steak is well done. 
Serve hot. 

47. Swi.ss Steak. — Another very appetizing dish that "can be 
made from the cheaper steaks is Swiss steak. To be most satis- 
factory, the steak used for this purpose should be about an inch 
thick. 

Pound as much dry flour as possible into both sides of the steak 
by means of a wooden potato masher. Then brown it on both sides 
in a hot frying pan with some of the beef fat. When it is thoroughly 
browned, pour a cup of hot water over it, cover the pan tight, and 
remove to the back of the stove. Have just enough water on the 
steak and apply just enough heat to keep it simmering very slowly 
for about ^ hour. As the meat cooks, the water will form a gravy 
by becoming thickened with the flour that has been pounded into 
the steak. Serve the steak with this gravy. 

48. Hamburg-er Sceak. — The tougher pieces of beef, such as 
the flank ends of the steak and parts of the rump, the round, and 
the chuck, may be ground fine by being forced through a food 
chopper. Such meat is very frequently combined with egg and then 
formed into small cakes or patties to make Hamburger steak. 
Besides providing a way to utilize pieces of meat that might other- 
wise be wasted, this dish affords variety to the diet. 

Hamburger Steak 

(Sufficient to Serve Four) 

1 lb. chopped beef 1 small onion, chopped 

H tsp. salt 1 tgg (if desired) 

^ tsp. pepper 
Mix the ingredients thoroughly and shape into thin patties. Cook 
by broiling in a pan placed in the broiler or by pan-broiling in a hot, 
well-greased frying pan. Spread with butter when ready to serve. 



30 MEAT § 10 

49. Planked Steak. — A dish that the housewife generally con- 
siders too complicated for her, but that may very readily be prepared 
in the home, is planked steak. Such a steak gets its name from the 
fact that a part of its cooking is done on a hardwood plank, and 
that the steak, together with vegetables of various kinds, is served 
on the plank. Potatoes are always used as one of the vegetables 
that are combined with planked steak, but besides them almost any 
combination or variety of vegetables may be used as a garnish. 
Asparagus tips, string beans, peas, tiny onions, small carrots, mush- 
rooms, cauliflower, stuffed peppers, and stuffed tomatoes are the 
vegetables from which a selection is usually made. When a tender 
steak is selected for this purpose and is properly cooked, and when 
the vegetables are well prepared and artistically arranged, no dish 
can be found that appeals more to the eye and the taste. 

To prepare this dish, broil or pan-broil one of the better cuts of 
steak for about 8 minutes. Butter the plank, place the steak on the 
center of it and season with salt and pepper. Mash potatoes and to 
each 2 cupfuls use 4 tablespoonfuls of milk, 1 tablespoonful of 
butter, and one egg. After these materials have been mixed well 
into the potatoes, arrange a border of potatoes around the edge of 
the plank. Then garnish the steak with whatever vegetables have 
been selected. Care should be taken to see that these are properly 
cooked and well seasoned. If onions, mushrooms, or carrots are 
used, it is well to saute them in butter after they are thoroughly 
cooked. With the steak thus prepared, place the plank under the 
broiler or in a hot oven and allow it to remain there long enough to 
brown the potatoes, cook the steak a little more, and thoroughly heat 
all the vegetables. 

50. Vegetables Served With Steak. — If an attractive, as 
well as a tasty, dish is desired and the housewife has not sufficient 
time nor the facilities to prepare a planked steak, a good plan is to 
saute a vegetable of some kind and serve it over the steak. For this 
purpose numerous vegetables are suitable, but onions, small mush- 
rooms, and sliced tomatoes are especially desirable. When onions 
are used, they should be sliced thin and then sauted in butter until 
they are soft and brown. Small mushrooms may be prepared in 
the same way, or they may be sauted in the fat that remains in the 
pan after the steak has been removed. Tomatoes that are served 
over steak should be sliced, rolled in crumbs, and then sauted. 



§10 



MEAT 



31 



ROASTS AXD THEIR PRRPARATIOX 

51. Fillet of Beef. — A large variety of roasts can be obtained 
from a side of beef, but by far the most delicious one is the tender- 
loin, or fillet of beef. This is a long strip of meat lying directly 




under the chine, or back bone. It is either taken out as a whole, or it 
is left in the loin to be cut as a part of the steaks that are obtained 
from this section. When it is removed in a whole piece, as shown 
in Fig. 14, the steaks that remain in the loin are not so desirable 




and do not bring such a good price, because the most tender part of 
each of them is removed. 

Two different methods of cookery are usually applied to the 
tenderloin of beef. Very often, as Fig. 14 shows, it is cut into slices 
about 2 inches thick and then broiled, when it is called broiled fillet, 



32 



MEAT 



§10 



or fillet mignon. If it is not treated in this way, the whole tender- 
loin is roasted after being rolled, or larded, with salt pork to supply 
the fat that it lacks. Whichever way it is cooked, the tenderloin 
always proves to be an exceptionally tender and delicious cut of 




Fig. 16 
beef. However, it is the most expensive piece that can be bought, 
and so is not recommended when economy must be practiced. 

52. Chuck Roasts. — While the pieces cut from the chuck 
are not so desirable as those obtained from the loin or as the prime 
ribs, still the chuck yields very good roasts, as Figs. 15 and 16 
show. The roast shown in Fig. 15 is the piece just back of the 
shoulder, and that illustrated in Fig. 16 is cut from the ribs in the 
chuck. These pieces are of a fairly good quality and if a roast as 





S[^^^^ 





^ 




^ 


^-^*^ 







Fig. 17 

large as 8 or 10 pounds is desired, they make an economical one to 
purchase. 

53. Rib Roasts. — Directly back of the chuck, as has already 
been learned, are the prime ribs. From this part of the beef, which 
is shown in Figs. 17 and 18, the best rib roasts are secured. Fig. 17 
shows the ribs cut off at about the eighth rib and Fig. 18 shows the 



§ 10 AIEAT 33 

same set turned around so that the cut surface is at about the first 




Fig. 18 

rib, where the best cuts occur. To prepare this piece for roasting, 
it is often cut around the dark hue shown in Fig. 18, and after the 






Fig. 19 

back bone and ribs have been removed, is rolled into a roll of solid 
meat. The thin lower part that is cut 
off is used for boiling. 

54. When only a small roast is 
wanted, a single rib, such as is shown 
in Fig. 19, is often used. In a roast of 
this kind, the bone is not removed, but, 
as will be observed, is sawed in half. 
Such a roast is called a standing rib 
roast. Another small roast, called a 
porterhouse roast, is illustrated in p^^ ^g 

Fig. 20. This is obtained by cutting 
a porterhouse steak rather thick. It is therefore a very tender and 




34 MEAT § 10 

delicious, although somewhat expensive, roast. Other parts of the 
loin may also be cut for roasts, the portion from which sirloin 
steaks are cut making large and very delicious roasts. 

55. Rump Roasts. — Between the loin and the bottom round 
lies the rump, and from this may be cut roasts of ditiferent kinds. 
The entire rump with its cut surface next to the round is shown in 
Fig. 21, and the various pieces into which the rump may be cut are 
illustrated in Figs. 22 to 25. These roasts have a very good flavor 
and are very juicy, and if beef in prime condition can be obtained, 
they are extremely tender. Besides these advantages, rump roasts 
are economical, so they are much favored. To prepare them for 




cooking, the butcher generally removes the bone and rolls them in 
the manner shown in Fig. 26. 

56. Roast Beef. — The usual method of preparing the roasts 
that have just been described, particularly the tender ones, is to 
cook them in the oven. For this purpose a roasting pan, such as the 
one previously described and illustrated, produces the best results, 
but if one of these cannot be obtained, a dripping pan may be substi- 
tuted. When the meat is first placed in the oven, the oven temper- 
ature should be 400 to 450 degrees Fahrenheit, but after the meat 
has cooked for about 15 minutes, the temperature should be lowered 
so that the meat will cook more slowly. 



36 



MEAT 



§10 



Before putting the roast in the oven, wipe it thoroughly with a 
damp cloth. If its surface is not well covered with a layer of fat, 
place several pieces of salt pork on it and tie or skewer them fast. 
Then, having one of the cut sides up so that it will be exposed to 
the heat of the oven, set the piece of meat in a roasting pan or the 
utensil that is to be substituted. Dredge, or sprinkle, the surface 
with flour, salt, and pepper, and place the pan in the oven, first 
making sure that the oven is sufficiently hot. Every 10 or 15 min- 
utes baste the meat with the fat and the juice that cooks out of it; 
that is, spoon vip this liquid and pour it over the meat in order to 
improve the flavor and to prevent the roast from becoming dry. If 
necessary, a little water may be added for basting, but the use of 
water for this purpose should generally be avoided. Allow the 
meat to roast until it is either well done 
or rare, according to the way it is pre- 
ferred. The length of time required 
for this process depends so much on 
the size of the roast, the temperature 
of the oven, and the preference of the 
persons who are to eat the meat, that 
definite directions cannot well be given. 
However, a general idea of this matter 
can be obtained by referring to the 
^'°' "^ Cookery Time Table given in Essen- 

tials of Cookery, Part 2, and also to Table I of this Section, which 
gives the time required for cooking each pound of meat. If desired, 
gravy may be made from the juice that remains in the pan, the direc- 
tions for making gravy being given later. 




57. Braized Beef. — An excellent way in which to cook a piece 
of beef that is cut from the rump or lower round is to braize it. 
This method consists in placing the meat on a rack over a small 
quantity of water in a closed pan and then baking it in the oven for 
about 4 hours. Vegetables cut into small pieces are placed in the 
water and they cook while the meat is baking. As meat prepared 
in this way really cooks in the flavored steam that rises from the 
vegetables, it becomes very tender and has a splendid flavor; also, 
the gravy that may be made from the liquid that remains adds to 
its value. In serving it, a spoonful of the vegetables is generally put 
on the plate with each piece of meat. 



§ 10 MEAT 37 

Braized Beef 

(Sufficient to Serve Six) 

3 lb. beef from rump or lower \ c. diced carrots 

round 5 c. diced turnips 

Flour '4 c. diced onions 

Salt i c. diced celery- 

Pepper 3 c. boiling water 

2 thin slices salt pork 
Wipe the meat with a damp cloth, and dredge, or sprinkle, it with 
the flour, salt, and pepper. Try out the pork and brown the entire 
surface of the meat in the fat thus obtained. Then place the meat 
on a rack in a deep granite pan, an earthen bowl, or a baking dish, 
and surround it with the diced vegetables. Add the boiling water, 
cover the dish tight, and place in a slow oven. Bake for about 
4 hours at a low temperature. Then remove the meat to a hot 
platter, strain out the vegetables, and make a thickened gravy of 
the liquid that remains, as explained later. 

58. Pot-Roasted Beef. — The usual, and probably the most 
satisfactory, method of preparing the cheaper cuts of beef is to 
cook them in a heavy iron pot over a slow fire for several hours. 
If the proper attention is given to the preparation of such a roast, 
usually called a pot roast, it will prove a very appetizing dish. Pota- 
toes may also be cooked in the pot with the meat. This is a good 
plan to follow for it saves fuel and at the same time offers variety in 
the cooking of potatoes. 

When a piece of beef is to be roasted in a pot, try out in the pot a 
little of the beef fat. Then wipe the meat carefully and brown it 
on all sides in the fat. Add salt, pepper, and ^ cupful of boiling 
water and cover the pot tightly. Cook over a slow fire until the 
water is evaporated and the meat begins to brown ; then add another 
i cupful of water. Continue to do this until the meat has cooked 
for several hours, or until the entire surface is well browned and 
the meat tissue very tender. Then place the meat on a hot platter 
and, if desired, make gravy of the fat that remains in the pan, 
following the directions given later. If potatoes are to be cooked 
with the roast, put them into the pot around the meat about 45 min- 
utes before the meat is to be removed, as they will be cooked suffi- 
ciently when the roast is done. 

59. Beef Loaf. — Hamburger steak is not always made into 
small patties and broiled or sauted. In fact, it is very often com- 



38 MEAT § 10 

bined with cracker crumbs, milk, and egg, and then well seasoned to 
make a beef loaf. Since there are no bones nor fat to be cut away in 
serving, this is an economical dish and should be used occasionally 
to give variety to the diet. If desired, a small quantity of salt pork 
may be combined with the beef to add flavor. 
Beef Loaf 

(Sufficient to Serve Ten) 

3 lb. beef 2 Tb. salt 

^ lb. salt pork I Tb. pepper 

1 c. cracker crumbs 1 small onion 

1 c. milk 2 Tb. chopped parsley 

Put the beef and pork through the food chopper; then mix 
thoroughly with the other ingredients. Pack tightly into a loaf-cake 
pan. Bake in a moderate oven for 2^ to 3 hours. During the baking, 
baste frequently with hot water to which a little butter has been 
added. Serve either hot or cold, as desired. 



FRKPARATION OF STEAVS A\'D CORXED BEEP 

60. Cuts Suitable for Stewing- and Corning. — Because 
of the large variety of cuts obtained from a beef, numerous ways of 
cooking this meat have been devised. The tender cuts are, of 
course, the most desirable and the most expensive and they do not 
require the same preparation as the cheaper cuts. However, the 
poorer cuts, while not suitable for some purposes, make very good 
stews and corned beef. The cuts that are most satisfactory for 
stewing and corning are shown in Figs. 27 to 30. A part of the 
chuck that is much used for stewing and corning is shown in Fig. 27, 
a being the upper chuck, b the shoulder, and c the lower chuck. 
Fig. 28 shows a piece of the shoulder cut off just at the leg joint. 
Fig. 29, the neck, and Fig. 30, a piece of the plate called a flat-rib 
piece. Besides these pieces, the brisket, the lower part of the round, 
and any of the other chuck pieces that do not make good roasts are 
excellent for this purpose. In fact, any part that contains bone and 
fat, as well as lean, makes well-flavored stew. 

61. Beef Stew. — Any of the pieces of beef just mentioned 
may be used with vegetables of various kinds to make beef stew. 
Also l,eft-over pieces of a roast or a steak may be utilized with other 
meats in the making of this dish. If the recipe here given is care- 







Fig. 30 



40 MEAT § 10 

fully followed, a very appetizing as well as nutritious stew will be 
the result. 

Beef Stew 

(Sufficient to Serve Eight) 

4 lb. beef f c. diced carrots 

2 Tb. salt • 1 small onion, sliced 

J Tb. pepper 3 c. potatoes cut into ^-in. slices 

f c. diced turnips 2 Tb. flour 

Wipe the meat and cut it into pieces about 2 inches long. Try 
out some of the fat in a frying pan and brown the pieces of meat in 
it, stirring the meat constantly so that it will brown evenly. Put 
the browned meat into a kettle with the remaining fat and the bone, 
cover well with boiling water, and add the salt and pepper. Cover 
the kettle with a tight-fitting lid. Let the meat boil for a minute 
or two, then reduce the heat, and allow it to simmer for about 
2 hours. For the last hour, cook the diced turnips, carrots, and 
onions with the meat, and 20 minutes before serving, add the pota- 
toes. When the meat and vegetables are sufificiently cooked, remove 
the bones, fat, and skin ; then thicken the stew with the flour mois- 
tened with enough cold water to pour. Pour into a deep platter or 
dish and serve with or without dumplings. 

62. When dumplings are to be served with beef stew or any 
dish of this kind, they may be prepared as follows : 

Dumplings 
2 c. flour 2 Tb. fat 

i Tb. salt f to 1 c. milk 

4 tsp. baking powder 
Mix and sift the flour, salt, and baking powder. Chop in the fat 
with a knife. Add the milk gradually and mix to form a dough. 
Toss on a floured board and roll out or pat until it is about 1 inch 
thick. Cut into pieces with a small biscuit cutter. Place these close 
together in a buttered steamer and steam over a kettle of hot water 
for 15 to 18 minutes. Serve with the stew. 

If a softer dough that can be cooked with the stew is preferred, 
li cupfuls of milk instead of f to 1 cupful should be used. Drop 
the dough thus prepared by the spoonful into the stew and boil for 
about 15 minutes. Keep the kettle tightly covered while the dump- 
lings are boiling. 

63. Corned Beef. — It is generally the custom to purchase 
corned beef, that is, beef preserved in a brine, at the market ; but 



§ 10 MEAT 41 

this is not necessary, as meat of this kind may be prepared in the 
home. When the housewife wishes to corn beef, she will find it an 
advantage to procure a large portion of a quarter of beef, part of 
which may be corned and kept to be used after the fresh beef has 
been eaten. Of course, this plan should be followed only in cold 
weather, for fresh meat soon spoils unless it is kept very cold. 

To corn beef, prepare a mixture of 10 parts salt to 1 part salt- 
peter and rub this into the beef until the salt remains dry on the 
surface. Put the meat aside for 24 hours and then rub it again with 
some of the same mixture. On the following day, put the beef into 
a large crock or stone jar and cover it with a brine made by boiling 
2^ gallons of water into which have been added 2 quarts salt, 
2 ounces saltpeter, and f pound brown sugar. Be careful to cool 
the brine until it entirely cold before using it. Allow the beef to 
remain in the brine for a week before attempting to use it. Inspect 
it occasionally, and if it does not appear to be keeping well, remove 
it from the brine, rub it again with the salt mixture, and place it in 
fresh brine. Beef that is properly corned will keep an indefinite 
length of time, but it should be examined, every 2 or 3 days for the 
first few weeks to see that it is not spoiling. 

64. Boiled Corned Beef. — The usual way to prepare beef 
corned in the manner just explained or corned beef bought at the 
market is to boil it. After it becomes sufficiently tender by this 
method of cooking, it may be pressed into a desired shape and when 
cold cut into thin slices. Meat of this kind makes an excellent dish 
for a light meal such as luncheon or supper. 

To boil corned beef, first wipe it thoroughly and roll and tie it. 
Then put it into a kettle, cover it with boiling water, and set it over 
the fire. When it comes to the boiling point, skim off the scum that 
forms on the top. Cook at a low temperature until the meat is tender 
enough to be pierced easily with a fork. Then place the meat in a 
dish or a pan, pour the broth over it, put a plate on top that will rest 
on the meat, and weight it down with something heavy enough to 
press the meat into shape. Allow it to remain thus overnight. When 
cold and thoroughly set, remove from the pan, cut into thin slices, 
and serve. 

65. Boiled Dinner. — Corned beef is especially adaptable to 
what is commonly termed a boiled dinner. Occasionally it is advis- 



42 MEAT § 10 

able for the housewife to vary her meals by serving a dinner of this 
kind. In addition to offering variety, such a dinner affords her an 
opportunity to economize on fuel, especially if gas or electricity is 
used, for all of it may be prepared in the same pot and cooked over 
the same burner. 

Boiled Dinner 

(Sufficient to Serve Six) 

3 lb. corned beef 1 c. sliced turnips 

1 small head of cabbage cut into 1 c. sliced potatoes 

eighths Pepper and salt 
1 c. sliced carrots 

Cook the corned beef in the* manner explained in Art. 6-4. When 
it has cooked sufficiently, remove it from the water. Into this water, 
put the cabbage, carrots, turnips, and potatoes ; then add the salt 
and pepper, seasoning to taste. Cook until the vegetables are tender. 
Remove the vegetables and serve them in vegetable dishes with 
some of the meat broth. Reheat the meat before serving. 



BEEF ORGANS AND THEIR PREPARATTOIV 

66. Boiled Tongue. — The tongue of beef is much used, for if 
properly prepared it makes a delicious meat that may be served hot 
or cold. It is usually corned or smoked to preserve it until it can 
be used. In either of these forms or in its fresh state, it must be 
boiled in order to remove the skin and prepare the meat for further 
use. If it has been corned or smoked, it is likely to be very salty, 
so that it should usually be soaked overnight to remove the salt. 

When boiled tongue is desired, put a fresh tongue or a smoked 
or a corned tongue from which the salt has been removed into a 
kettle of cold water and allow it to come to a boil. Skim and con- 
tinue to cook at a low temperature for 2 hours. Cool enough to 
handle and then remove the skin and the roots. Cut into slices and 
serve hot or cold. 

67. Pickled Tongue. — A beef tongue prepared in the manner 
just explained may be treated in various ways, but a method of 
preparation that meets with much favor consists in pickling it. 
Pickled tongue makes an excellent meat when a cold dish is required 
for a light meal or meat for sandwiches is desired. The pickle 
required for one tongue contains the following ingredients : 



§ 10 MEAT 43 

Pickle 

H c. vinegar ^ Tb. pepper 

2 c. water 6 cloves 

5 c. sugar 1 stick cinnamon 

1 Tb. salt 
Boil all of these ingredients for a few minutes, then add the 
tongue, and boil for 15 minutes. Remove from the stove and let 
stand for 24 hours. Slice and serve cold. 

68. Braized Tongue. — The process of braizing may be 
applied to tongue as well as to other parts of beef. In fact, when 
tongue is cooked in this way with several kinds of vegetables, it 
makes a delicious dish that is pleasing to most persons. 

Braized Tongue 

(Sufficient to Serve Eight) 

1 fresh tongue 1 c. stewed tomatoes 

i c. diced carrots 2 c. water in which tongue is 

i c. diced onions boiled 

i c. diced celery 
Boil the tongue as previously directed, and then skin it and 
remove the roots. Place it in a long pan and pour over it the car- 
rots, onions, celery, stewed tomatoes, and the water. Cover tight 
and bake in a slow oven for 2 hours. Serve on a platter with the 
vegetables and sauce. 

69. Stuffed Heart. — If a stuffed meat is desired, nothing 
more appetizing can be found than stuffed heart. For this purpose 
the heart of a young beef should be selected in order that a tender 
dish will result. 

After washing the heart and removing the veins and the arteries, 
make a stuffing like that given for rolled beefsteak in Art. 45. 
Stuff the heart with this dressing, sprinkle salt and pepper over 
it, and roll it in flour. Lay several strips of bacon or salt pork 
across the top, place in a baking pan, and pour 1 cupful of water into 
the pan. Cover the pan tight, set it in a hot oven, and bake slowly 
for 2 or 3 hours, depending on the size of the heart. Add water as 
the water in the pan evaporates, and baste the heart frequently. 
When it has baked sufficiently, remove to a platter and serve at once. 



44 • MEAT §10 



MAKING GRAVY 

70. To meats prepared in various ways, gravy — that is, the 
sauce made from the drippings or juices that cook out of steaks, 
roasts, and stews, or from the broth actually cooked from the meat 
as for soup — is a valuable addition, particularly if it is well made 
and properly seasoned. A point to remember in this connection is 
that gravy should be entirely free from lumps and not too thick. 
It will be of the right thickness if 1 to 2 level tablespoonfuls of flour 
is used for each pint of liquid. It should also be kept in mind that 
the best gravy is made from the brown drippings that contain 
some fat. 

To make gravy, remove any excess of fat that is not required, 
and then pour a little hot water into the pan in order to dissolve 
the drippings that are to be used. Add the flour to the fat, stirring 
until a smooth paste is formed. Then add the liquid, which may be 
water or milk, and stir quickly to prevent the formation of lumps. 
Season well with salt and pepper. Another method that also proves 
satisfactory is to mix the flour and liquid and then add them to the 
fat that remains in the pan in which the meat has been cooked. 



TRYING OrT SIET AND OTHER PATS 

71. The suet obtained from beef is a valuable source of fat for 
cooking, and it should therefore never be thrown away. The 
process of obtaining the fat from suet is called trying, and it is 
always practiced in homes where economy is the rule. 

To try out suet, cut the pieces into half -inch cubes, place them 
in a heavy frying pan, and cover them with hot water. Allow this 
to come to a boil and cook until the water has evaporated. Con- 
tinue the heating until all the fat has been drawn from the tissue. 
Then pour off all the liquid fat and squeeze the remaining suet with 
a potato masher or in a fruit press. Clean glass or earthen jars are 
good receptacles in which to keep the fat thus recovered from the 
suet. 

To try out other fats, proceed in the same way as for trying out 
suet. Such fats may be tried by heating them in a pan without 
water, provided the work is done carefully enough to prevent them 
from scorching. 



10 MEAT 45 



PREPAUATIOJJ OF LEFT-OVER BEEF 

72. As has been shown, meat is both an expensive and a perish- 
able food. Therefore, some use should be made of every left-over 
bit of it, no matter how small, and it should be disposed of quickly 
in order to prevent it from spoiling. A point that should not be 
overlooked in the use of left-over meats, however, is that they should 
be prepared so as to be a contrast to the original preparation and 
thus avoid monotony in the food served. This variation may be 
accomplished by adding other foods and seasonings and by changing 
the appearance as much as possible. For instance, what remains 
from a roast of beef may be cut in thin slices and garnished to make 
an attractive dish; or, left-over meat may be made very appetizing 
by cutting it into cubes, reheating it in gravy or white sauce, and 
serving it over toast or potato patties. Then there is the sandwich, 
which always finds a place in the luncheon. The meat used for this 
purpose may be sliced thin or it may be chopped fine, and then, to 
increase the quantity, mixed with salad dressing, celery, olives, 
chopped pickles, etc. An excellent sandwich is made by placing 
thin slices of roast beef between two slices of bread and serving 
hot roast-beef gravy over the sandwich thus formed. Still other 
appetizing dishes may be prepared from left-over beef as the accom- 
panying recipes show. 

73. Mexican Beef. — An extremely appetizing dish, known as 
Mexican beef, can be made from any quantity of left-over beef by 
serving it with a vegetable sauce. Such a dish needs few accompani- 
ments when it is served in a light meal, but it may be used very 
satisfactorily as the main dish in a heavy meal. 

Mexican Beef 

2 Tb. butter i tsp. salt 

1 onion, chopped ^ tsp. pepper 

1 red pepper 1 tsp. celery salt 

1 green pepper Thin slices roast beef 

5 c. canned tomatoes 

Brown the butter, add the chopped onion, and cook for a few 
minutes. Then add the chopped peppers, tomatoes, salt, pepper, and 
celery salt. Cook all together for a few minutes and add the thinly 
sliced roast beef. When the meat has become thoroughly heated, it 
is ready to serve. 



46 MEAT § 10 

74. Cottage Pie. — A very good way to use up left-over 
mashed potatoes as well as roast beef is to combine them and make 
a cottage pie. In this dish, mashed potatoes take the place of the 
crust that is generally put over the top of a meat pie. If well 
seasoned and served hot, it makes a very palatable dish. 

To make a cottage pie, cover the bottom of a baking dish with a 
2-inch layer of well-seasoned mashed potatoes. Over this spread 
left-over roast beef cut into small pieces. Pour over the meat and 
potatoes any left-over gravy and a few drops of onion juice made 
by grating raw onion. Cover with a layer of mashed potatoes 1 inch 
deep. Dot with butter and place in a hot oven until the pie has 
heated through and browned on top. Serve hot. 

75. Beef Pie. — No housewife need be at a loss for a dish that 
will tempt her family if she has on hand some left-over pieces of 
beef, for out of them she may prepare a beef pie, which is always 
in favor. Cold roast beef makes a very good pie, but it is not neces- 
sary that roast beef be used, as left-over steak or even a combination 
of left-over meats, will do very well. 

Cut into 1-inch cubes whatever kinds of left-over meats are on 
hand. Cover with hot water, add a sliced onion, and cook slowly 
for 1 hour. Thicken the liquid with flour and season well with salt 
and pepper. Add two or three potatoes, cut into :j-inch slices, and 
let them boil for several minutes. Pour the mixture into a buttered 
baking dish and cover it with a baking-powder biscuit mixture. 
Bake in a hot oven until the crust is brown. Serve hot. 

76. Beef Hash. — One of the most satisfactory ways in which 
to utilize left-over roast beef or corned beef is to cut it into small 
pieces and make it into a hash. Cold boiled potatoes that remain 
from a previous meal are usually combined with the beef, and onion 
is added for flavor. When hash is prepared to resemble an omelet 
and is garnished with parsley, it makes an attractive dish. 

To make beef hash, remove all skin and bone from the meat, chop 
quite fine, and add an equal quantity of chopped cold-boiled potatoes 
and one chopped onion. Season with salt and pepper. Put the 
mixture into a well-buttered frying pan, moisten with milk, meat 
stock, or left-over gravy, and place over a fire. Let the hash brown 
slowly on the bottom and then fold over as for an omelet. Serve on 
a platter garnished with parsley. 



§ 10 MEAT 47 

77. Frizzled Beef. — While the dried beef used in the prepara- 
tion of frizzled beef is not necessarily a left-over meat, the recipe 
for this dish is given here, as it is usually served at a meal when the 
preceding left-over beef dishes are appropriate. Prepared according 
to this recipe, frizzled beef will be found both nutritious and 
appetizing. 

Frizzled Beef 
(Sufficient to Serve Four) 

2 Tb. butter 1 c. milk 

:j lb. thinly sliced dried beef 4 slices of toast 

2 Tb. flour 
Brown the butter in a frying pan and add the beef torn into small 
pieces. Allow it to cook until the beef becomes brown. Add the 
flour and brown it. Pour the milk over all, and cook until the flour 
thickens the milk. Serve over the toast. 



MEAT 

(PART 1) 



EXAMINATION QUESTIONS 

(1) (a) What is meat? (b) What substance in meat makes it a valuable 
food? 

(2) (a) What do protein foods do for the body? (b) How does meat 
compare in cost with the other daily foods? 

(3) What harm may occur from eating meat that is not thoroughly cooked? 

(4) (a) Describe the structure of meat, (b) How do the length and the 
direction of the fibers affect the tenderness of meat? 

(5) (a) How may gelatine be obtained from meat? (b) What use is 
made of this material? 

(6) (a) Describe the two kinds of fat found in meat, (b) What does 
this substance supply to the body ? 

(7) (a) What is the value of water in the tissues of meat? (b) How does 
its presence affect the cookery method to choose for preparing meat? 

(8) (a) What are extractives? (/>) Why are they of value in meat? 

(9) (a) Name the ways by which the housewife may reduce her meat bill. 
(b) How should meat be cared for in the home? 

(10) Give three reasons for cooking meat. 

(11) (a) Describe the effect of cooking on the materials contained in meat. 
(b) How does cooking affect the digestibility of meat? 

(12) What methods of cookery are used for: (a) the tender cuts of meat? 
(b) the tough cuts? (r) IMention the cuts of meat that have the most flavor. 

(13) (a) How should the temperature of the oven vary with the size 
of the roast to be cooked? (b) Give the reason for this. 

(14) Describe beef of good quality. 

(15) In what parts of the animal are found: (a) the cheaper cuts of beef? 
(b) the more expensive cuts? 

(16) (a) Name the steaks obtained from the loin? (b) Which of these 
is best for a large family? (c) Which is best for a small family? 

(17) Describe the way in which to broil steak. 

(18) ((() What is the tenderloin of beef? (b) Explain the two ways of 
cooking it. 

(19) (a) Name the various kinds of roasts, (b) Describe the roasting of 
beef in the oven. 

(20) (a) What cuts of beef are most satisfactory for stews? (b) Explain 
how beef stew is made. 

§10 . • 



MEAT 

(PART 2) 



VEAL 



NATURE OF VEAL 

1. Veal is the name applied to the flesh of a shiughtered calf. 
This kind of meat is at its best in animals that are from 6 weeks to 
3 months old when killed. Calves younger than 6 weeks are some- 
times slaughtered, but their meat is of poor quality and should be 
avoided. Meat from a calf that has not reached the age of 3 weeks 
is called bob veal. Such meat is pale, dry, tough, and indigestible 
and, consequently, unfit for food. In most states the laws strictly 
forbid the sale of bob veal for food, but constant vigilance must be 
exercised to safeguard the public from unscrupulous dealers. A calf 
that goes beyond the age of 3 months without being slaughtered 
must be kept and fattened until it reaches the age at which it can 
be profitably sold as beef, for it is too old to be used as veal. 

2. The nature of veal can be more readily comprehended by 
comparing it with beef, the characteristics of which are now under- 
stood. Veal is lighter in color than beef, being more nearly pink 
than red, and it contains very little fat, as reference to Fig. 1, Meat, 
Part 1, will show. The tissues of veal contain less nutriment than 
those of beef, but they contain more gelatine. The flavor of veal is 
less pronounced than that of beef, the difference between the age of 
animals used for veal and those used for beef bSing responsible 
for this lack of flavor. These characteristics, as well as the differ- 
ence in size of corresponding cuts, make it easy to distinguish veal 
from beef in the market. 

COPYRIGHTED BY INTERNATIONAL EDUCATIONAL PUBLISHING COMPANY. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 



MEAT 



11 



CUTS OF VEAL AND THEIR USES 

3. The slaughtered calf from which veal is obtained is generally 
delivered to the butcher in the form shown in Fig. 1 ; that is, with 




the head, feet, and intestines removed and the carcass split into halves 
through the spine. He divides each half into quarters, known as the 
fore quarter and the hind quarter, and cuts these into smaller pieces. 



§11 MEAT 3 

4. Fore Quarter. — The fore quarter, as shown in Fig. 1, is 
composed of the neck, chuck, shoulder, fore shank, breast, and ribs. 
Frequently, no distinction is made between the neck and the chuck, 
both of these pieces and the fore shank being used for soups and 
stews. The shoulder is cut from the ribs lying underneath, and it 
is generally used for roasting, often with stuffing rolled inside of it. 
The breast, which is the under part of the fore quarter and corre- 
sponds to the plate in beef, is suitable for either roasting or stewing. 
A\'hen the rib bones are removed from it, a pocket that will hold 
stuffing can be cut into this piece. The ribs between the shoulder 
and the loin are called the rack; they may be cut into chops or used 
as one piece for roasting. 

5. Hind Quarter. — The hind quarter, as Fig. 1 shows, is 
divided into the loin, flank, leg, and hind shank. The loin and the 
flank are located similarly to these same ci:ts in beef. In some local- 
ities, the part of veal corresponding to the rump of beef is included 
with the loin, and in others it is cut as part of the leg. When it is 
part of the leg, the leg is cut off just in front of the hip bone and is 
separated from the lower part of the leg, or hind shank, immediately 
below the hip joint. This piece is often used for roasting, although 
cutlets or steaks may be cut from it. The hind shank, which, 
together with the fore shank, is called a knuckle, is used for soup 
making. When the loin and flank are cut in a single piece, they are 
used for roasting. 

6. Veal Organs. — Certain of the organs of the calf, like those 
of beef animals, are used for food. They include the heart, tongue, 
liver, and kidneys, as well as the thymus and thyroid glands and the 
pancreas. The heart and tongue of veal are more delicate in 
texture and flavor than those of beef, but the methods of cooking 
them are practically the same. The liver and kidneys of calves make 
very appetizing dishes and find favor with many persons. The 
thymus and thyroid glands and the pancreas are included under the 
term sivee threads. The thymus gland, which lies near the heart and 
is often called the heart sivccthread, is the best one. The thyroid 
gland lies in the throat and is called the throat szveetbread. These 
two glands are joined by a connecting membrane, but this is often 
broken and each gland sold as a separate sweetbread. The pan- 
creas, which is the stomach szveetbread, is used less often than the 
others. 



MEAT 



§11 



7. Table of Veal Cuts. — The various cuts of veal, together 
with their uses, are arranged for ready reference in Table I. There- 
fore, so- that the housewife may become thoroughly familiar with 
these facts about veal, she is urged to make a careful study of this 
table. 

TABLE I 



names of veal cuts and organs and their uses 

Uses of Cuts 



Name of Large 
Cut 



Fore Quartci 



Hind Quarter. , 



Veal Organs. 



Name of Small 
Cut 

Head Soup, made dishes, gelatine 

Breast Stew, made dishes, gelatine 

Ribs Stew, made dishes, chops 

Shoulder Stew, made dishes 

Neck Stew or stock, made dishes 

(Loin Chops, roasts 
Leg Cutlets or fillet, sauteing, or roasting 
Knuckle Stock, stews 

Brains A/fade dishes, chafing dish 

Liver Broiling, sauteing 

Heart Stuffed, baked 

Tongue Boiled, braised 

Sweetbreads Made dishes, chafing dish 

Kidneys Boiled, stew 



COOKING OF VEAL 



VEAL, CITS AND THEIR PREPARATION 

8. In the preparation of veal, an important point to remember 
is that meat of this kind always requires thorough cooking. It 
should never be served rare. Because of the long cooking veal 
needs, together with the difficulty encountered in chewing it and 
its somewhat insipid flavor, which fails to excite the free flow of 
gastric juice, this meat is more indigestible than beef. In order to 
render it easier to digest, since it must be thoroughly cooked, the 
long, slow methods of cookery should be selected, as these soften 
the connective tissue. Because of the lack of flavor, veal is not so 
good as beef when the extraction of flavor is desired for broth. 
However, the absence of flavor makes veal a valuable meat to com- 
bine with chicken and the more expensive meats, particularly in 
highly seasoned made dishes or salads. Although lacking in flavor, 



§11 MEAT ■ 5 

veal contains more gelatine than other meats. While this substance 
is not very valuable as a food, it lends body to soup or broth and 
assists in the preparation of certain made dishes. To supply the 
flavor needed in dishes of this kind, pork is sometimes used with 
the veal. 

9. Veal Steaks or Cutlets. — Strictly speaking, veal cutlets 
are cut from the ribs ; however, a thin slice cut from the leg, as 
shown in Fig. 2, while in reality a steak, is considered by most 
housewives and butchers as a cutlet. A piece cut from the leg of 
veal corresponds to a cut of round steak in beef. 

10. Pan-Broiled Veal Steak or Cutlets. — Several methods 
of preparing veal steak or cutlets are in practice, but a very satis- 




factory one is to pan-broil them. This method prevents the juices 
from being drawn out of the meat and consequently produces a 
tender, palatable dish. 

To pan-broil veal steak or cutlets, grease a hot frying pan with 
fat of any desirable kind, place the pieces of meat in it, and allow 
them to sear, first on one side and then on the other. When they 
are completely seared, lower the temperature, and broil for 15 to 
20 minutes, or longer if necessary. Season well with salt and 
pepper. When cooked, remove to a platter and, just before serving, 
pour melted butter over the meat. 

11. Veal Cutlets in Brown Sauce. — To improve the flavor 
of veal cutlets, a brown sauce is often prepared and served with 



MEAT 



§11 



them. In fact, the cutlets are cooked in this sauce, which becomes 
thickened by the flour that is used to dredge the meat. 

To cook cutlets in this way, dredge them with flour, season them 
with salt and pepper, and saute them in ITot fat until the flour is 
quite brown. Then pour 1 cupful of milk and 1 cupful of water 
over the meat, cover the pan securely, and allow to cook slowly for 
about f hour. The sauce should be slightly thick and quite brown. 
Serve the cutlets in the brown sauce. 

12. Veal Roasts. — Several different cuts of veal make very 
good roasts. The most economical one is a 5- or 6-inch slice cut 
from the leg of veal in the same way as the steak shown in Fig. 2. 




Fig. 3 

Both the loin and the best end of the neck are excellent for roast- 
ing. The shoulder of veal, which is shown in Fig. 3, is sometimes 
roasted, but it is more often used for stew. Veal breast from which 
the ribs have been removed and veal rack, which is the portion of 
the ribs attached to the neck, may also be used for roasting. When 
they are, they are usually cut so as to contain a deep slit, or pocket, 
that may be filled with stuffing. In fact, whenever it is possible, 
the bone is removed from a piece of roasting veal and stuffing is 
put in its place. 

To roast any of these pieces, wipe the meat, dredge it with flour, 
and season it with salt and pepper. Place it in a roasting pan and 
put it into a hot oven. Bake for 15 minutes ; then lower the temper- 
ature of the oven and continue to bake slowly until the meat is well 



§ 11 MEAT 7 

done, the length of time depending on the size of the roast. Baste 
frequently during the roasting. Remove the roast to a hot platter. 
Then place the roasting pan over the flame, and make gravy by 
browning 2 tables'poonftrts of flour in the fat that it contains, adding 
to this H cupfuls of water, and cooking until the flour has thickened 
the water. Serve the gravy thus prepared in a gravy bowl. 

13. Stuffed Veal Breast. — A breast of veal in which a pocket 
has been cut for stuffing is shown in Fig. 4. AMicn such a piece is 




desired for roasting, it is advisable to have the butcher prepare it. 
The stuffing required should be made as follows : 
Stuffing for Veal 
4 Tb. butter or bacon or ham fat 2 sprigs of parsley, chopped 

^ Tb. salt 1 pimiento, chopped 

^ Tb. pepper U c. water 

1 Tb. celery salt 1 qt. stale bread crumbs 

Melt the fat, and to it add the salt, pepper, celery salt, parsley, 
pimiento, and water. Pour this mixture over the crumbs, and mix 
all thoroughly. Stuff into the opening in the breast. Place the meat 
thus stuffed in a baking pan and bake in a moderately hot oven for 
1 to li hours. 

14. Veal Potpie. — A good way in which to impart the flavor 
of meat to a starchy material and thus not only economize on meat, 
but also provide an appetizing dish, is to serve meat with dumplings 
in a veal potpie. For such a dish, a piece of veal from the shoulder, 



8 MEAT §11 

like that shown in Fig. 3, is the best cut. To give variety, potatoes 
may be used, and to improve the flavor at least one onion is cooked 
with the meat. 

To prepare a veal potpie, wipe the meat, cut it into pieces of the 
right size for serving, and to it add a few pieces of salt pork or 
bacon. Put these over the fire in enough cold water to cover the 
meat well and add a small onion, sliced. Bring to the boiling point 
and skim; then simmer until the meat is tender. Season with salt 
and pepper a few minutes before the meat has finished cooking. 
Next, make a baking-powder biscuit dough, roll it i inch thick, and 
cut it into 1^-inch squares. Then examine the meat to see how much 
of the liquid has evaporated. If the liquid is too thick, add boiling 
water to thin it. Drop in the squares of dough, cover the pot tight, 
and boil for 15 minutes without uncovering. 

If potatoes are desired in a pie of this kind, cut them into thick 
slices and add the slices about 10 minutes before the dough is to be 
put into the broth, so that they will have sufficient time in which 
to cook. 

15. Veal Stew. — The cheaper cuts of veal can be used to 
advantage for making veal stew. Such a dish is prepared in the 
same way as beef stew, which is explained in Meat, Part 1, except 
that veal is substituted for the beef. Vegetables of any desired kind 
may be used in veal stew, and the stewed or boiled dumplings men- 
tioned in the beef-stew recipe may or may not be used. As the 
vegetables anci the dumplings, provided dumplings are used, increase 
the quantity of meat-flavored food, only small portions of the meat 
need be served. 

16. Jellied Veal. — The large amount of gelatine contained 

in veal may be utilized in the preparation of jellied veal. The most 

satisfactory piece for making jellied veal is the knuckle, or shank. 

No more attractive meat dish than this can be found for luncheon 

or supper, for it can be cut into thin slices and served on a nicely 

garnished platter. 

Jellied Veal 
(Sufficient to Serve Six) 

Knuckle of veal 1 Tb. chopped parsley 

1 Tb. salt 1 Tb. chopped onion 

^ c. chopped celery 
Put the knuckle in a pot and add enough water to cover it. Add 
the salt, celery, parsley, and onion. Cook until the meat is very 



§ 11 MEAT 9 

tender and then strain off the Hquid. Cut the meat from the bones 
and chop it very fine. Boil the liquid until it is reduced to 1 pint, 
and then set aside to cool. Place the meat in a mold and when cold 
pour the broth over it. Keep in a cool place until it has set. Slice 
and serve cold. 

VEAL ORGANS AND THEIR PREPARATION 

17. Getting- Sweetbreads Ready for Cooking-. — The 

throat glands and the pancreas of calves, which, as has already 
been learned, are called sweetbreads, can be cooked in various ways 
for the table. The first process in their preparation, however, is the 
same for all recipes. When this is understood, it will be a simple 
matter to make up attractive dishes in which sweetbreads are used. 
It is generally advisable to buy sweetbreads in pairs, as the heart 
and throat sweetbreads are preferable to the one that lies near the 
stomach. Sweetbreads spoil very quickly. Therefore, as soon as 
they are brought into the kitchen, put them in cold water and allow 
them to remain there for ^ hour or more. Then put them to cook 
in boiling water for 20 minutes in order to parboil them, after which 
place them in cold water again. Unless they are to be used imme- 
diately, keep them in cold water, as this will prevent them from 
discoloring. Before using sweetbreads in the recipes that follow, 
remove the skin and stringy parts. 

18. Broiled Svs^eetbreads. — Because of their tenderness, 
sweetbreads are especially suitable for broiling. When prepared in 
this way and served with sauce of some kind, they are very palatable. 

In order to broil sweetbreads, first parboil them in the manner 
just explained. Then split each one lengthwise and broil them over 
a clear fire for 5 minutes or pan-broil them with a small amount of 
butter until both surfaces are slightly browned. Season with salt 
and pepper. Serve hot. 

19. Creamed Sweetbreads. — If an especially dainty dish is 
desired for a light meal, sweetbreads may be creamed and then 
served over toast or in patty shells or timbale cases, the making 
of which is taken up later. If desired, mushrooms may be com- 
bined with sweetbreads that are served in this way. Diced cold 
veal or calves' brains creamed and served in this way are also deli- 
cious. Instead of creaming sweetbreads and calves' brains, how- 
ever, these organs are sometimes scrambled with eggs. 



10 MEAT g 11 

To prepare creamed sweetbreads, parboil them and then separate 
them into small pieces with a fork or cut them into cubes. Reheat 
them in a cupful of white sauce, season well, and then serve them in 
any of the ways just mentioned. If mushrooms are to be used, cook 
and dice them before combining them with the sweetbreads. 

20. Kidneys. — The kidneys of both lamb and veal are used 
for food. The cooking of them, however, must be either a quick, 
short process or a long, slow one. When a quick method is applied, 
the tissues remain tender. Additional cooking renders them 
tough, so that a great deal more cooking must be done to make them 
tender again. Whatever method is applied, kidneys must always be 
soaked in water for 1 hour or more so as to cleanse them, the out- 
side covering then pared off, and the meat sliced or cut into cubes 
or strips. After being thus prepared, kidneys may be broiled or 
sauted, or, if a long method of cookery is preferred, they may be 
boiled or stewed with or without vegetables. 

21. Calves' Liver and Bacon. — Beef liver is sometimes used 
for food, but it is not so good as liver from the calf. In fact, calves' 
liver, especially when combined with bacon, is very appetizing. 
The bacon supplies the fat that the liver lacks and at the same time 
provides flavor. 

To prepare calves' liver and bacon, cut the liver into ^-inch slices, 
cover these with boiling water, and let them stand for 5 minutes. 
Remove from the water, dip into flour, and sprinkle with salt and 
pepper. For each slice of liver pan-broil a slice of bacon. Remove 
the bacon to a hot platter, and then place the slices of liver in the 
bacon fat and saute them for about 10 minutes, turning them 
frequently. Serve the liver and bacon together. 



PREPARATIOIV OF LEFT-OVER VEAL 

22. Veal Rolls. — The portion of a veal roast that remains after 
it has been served hot can be combined with dressing to make veal 
rolls, a dish that will be a pleasing change from the usual cold 
sliced meat. 

To make veal rolls, slice the veal and into each slice roll a spoon- 
ful of stuffing. Tie with a string, roll in flour, and sprinkle with 
salt and pepper. Brown the rolls in hot butter. Then pour milk, 



§ 11 MEAT 11 

stock, or gravy over the rolls and simmer for 10 minutes. Remove 
the strings and serve on toast. 

23. Left-Over Jellied Veal. — While jellied veal is usually 
made from a piece of veal bought especially for this purpose, it can 
be made from the left-overs of a veal roast. However, when the roast' 
is purchased, some veal bones should be secured. Wash these bones, 
cover them with cold water, and to them add 1 onion, 1 bay leaf, and 

1 cupful of diced vegetables, preferably celery, carrots, and turnips. 
Allow these to simmer for 2 hours. To this stock add the bones 
that remain after the roast has been served and simmer for 1 or 

2 hours more. Strain the stock, skim off the fat, and season well 
with salt and pepper. Chop fine the left-over veal and 2 hard- 
cooked eggs. Put in a loaf -cake pan and pour the stock over it. 
When it has formed a mold, slice and serve cold. 

24. Creamed Veal on Biscuits. — A very good substitute for 
chicken and hot biscuits is creamed veal served on biscuits. This is 
an especially good dish for a light meal, such as luncheon or supper. 
Any left-over veal may be chopped or cut up into small pieces and 
used for this purpose. After the veal has been thus prepared, 
reheat it with white sauce and season it well with paprika, salt, and 
pepper. Make baking-powder biscuits. To serve, split the hot bis- 
cuits, lay them open on a platter or a plate, and pour the hot creamed 
veal over them. 

25. Scalloped Veal With Rice.— A very palatable dish can 
be prepared from left-over veal by combining it with rice and 
tomatoes. To prepare such a dish, season cooked rice with 1 tea- 
spoonful of bacon fat to each cupful of rice. Place a layer of rice 
in a baking dish, and over it put a layer of chopped veal. Pour a 
good quantity of stewed tomatoes over the veal and season well 
with salt and pepper. Over the tomatoes put a layer of rice, and 
cover the top with buttered crumbs. Set in a hot oven and bake 
until the crumbs are browned and the ingredients thoroughly heated. 

26. Veal Salad. — A salad is always a delightful addition to 
a meal and so usually finds favor. When it is made of meat, such 
as veal, it can be used as the main dish for luncheon or supper. As 
shown in the accompanying recipe, other things, such as celery, peas, 
and hard-cooked eggs, are usually put in a salad of this kind. 

WI-C3-8 



12 



AlEAT 



§11 



Veal Salad 

(Sufficient to Serve Six) 

2 c. cold diced veal 4 Tb. olive oil 
1 c. diced celery 2 Tb. vinegar 
I c. canned peas 4 tsp. salt 

3 hard-cooked eggs -J tsp. pepper 

Combine the veal, celery, peas, and eggs chopped fine. Mix the 
olive oil, vinegar, salt, and pepper to make a dressing. Marinate 
the ingredients with this dressing. Serve on lettuce leaves with any 
salad dressing desired. 



MUTTON AND LAMB 



COMPARISON OF MUTTON AND LAMB 

27. The term mutton is usually applied to the flesh of a sheep 
that is 1 year or more old, while lamb is the flesh of sheep under 
1 year of age. The popularity of these meats varies very much 




with the locality. In the United States, a preference for lamb has 
become noticeable, but in England mutton is more popular and is 
more commonly used. Both of these meats, however, are very pala- 



11 



]\TEAT 



13 



table and nutritious, so that the choice of one or the other will 
always be determined by the taste or 
market conditions. 

28. Lamb that is 6 weeks to 3 
months old is called spring lamb, and 
itsually comes into the market in Jan- 
uary or February. The meat of sheep 
1 year old is called yearling. Good 
nmtton is cut from sheep that is about 
3 years old. Lamb may be eaten as 
soon as it is killed, but mutton requires 
ripening for 2 or 3 weeks to be in the 
best condition for food. Alutton differs 
from lamb very much as beef dift"ers 
from veal, or as the meat of any other 
mature animal differs from a young one 
of the same kind. In mutton there is a 
smaller percentage of water and a larger 
percentage of fat, protein, extractives, 
and flavoring substances. 

There is also a difference in the 
appearance of these two meats. Lamb 
is pink and contains only small amoimts 
of fat, while mutton is brick red and 
usually has considerable firm white fat. 
The bones of lamb are pink, while 
those of mutton are white. The otit- 
side of lamb is covered with a thin white 
skin that becomes pink in mutton. The 
size of the pieces of meat often aids in 
distinguishing between these two meats, 
mutton, of course, coming in larger 
pieces than lamb. 

29. If there is any question as to 
whether the meat from sheep is lamb 
or mutton, and it canot be settled by 
any of the characteristics already men- 
tioned, the front leg of the dressed 
animal mav be examined at the first 




§ 11 MEAT 15 

joint above the foot. Fig. 5 shows this joint in both lamb and 
mutton. In lamb, which is shown at the left, the end of the bone 
can be separated from the long bone at the leg, as indicated, while 
in mutton this joint grows fast and looks like the illustration at the 
right. The joint is jagged in lamb, but smooth and round in mutton. 



CUTS OF MUTTON AND LAMB 



METHOD OF OBTAINING CITS 

30. Mutton and lamb are usually cut up in the same way. the 
dressed animal being divided into two pieces of almost equal weight. 
The line of division occurs between the first and second ribs, as is 
indicated by the heavy middle line in Fig. 6. The back half of the 
animal is called the saddle and the front half, the rack. In addition 
to being cut in this way, the animal is cut down the entire length of 
the backbone and is thus divided into the fore and hind quarters. 

The method of cutting up the racks and saddles varies in different 
localities, but, as a rule, the method illustrated in Fig. 7 is the one 
that is used. As here shown, the rack, or fore quarter, is cut up 
into the neck, chuck, shoulder, rib chops, and breast ; and the 
saddle, or hind quarter, is divided into the loin, flank, and leg. 

The way in which the front and the back of a dressed sheep 
appear is shown in Fig. 8. The membrane, which extends from the 
legs down over the ribs, is the omentum, or covering of the intes- 
tines, and is known as the caul. This must be removed from any 
part that it covers before the meat is cooked. The kidneys incased 
in fat are also shown in the view at the left. 



NAMES AND I SES OP CITS 

31. Distinguishing- Features of Cuts. — When the uses of 
the cuts of lamb and mutton are to be considered, attention must 
be given to the anatomy of the animal and the exercise that the 
different parts have received during life. This is important, because 
the continued action of the muscles tends to make the flesh tough, 
but, at the same time, it increases the amount of extractives or flavor- 
ing material. Therefore, meat taken from a part that has been 



16 



MEAT 



§U 



subjected to much muscular action is likely to need longer cooking 

than that taken from portions that have not been exercised so much. 

In lamb and mutton, as in beef and veal, the hind quarter is 

exercised less in life than the fore quarter and consequently is, on 




the average, more tender. The cuts from this part are therefore 
more expensive and more suitable for roasting and broiling. The 



§ 11 MEAT 17 

fore quarter, although having the disadvantage of containing more 
bone and being tougher, is more abundantly supplied with extrac- 
tives and flavoring materials. Most of the pieces obtained from this 
portion are particularly suitable for broths, soups, stews, etc. The 
rib is an exception, for this is usually higher in price than the hind- 
quarter pieces and is used for chops and roasts. 

32. Table of Mutton and Lamb Cuts. — The various cuts 
of mutton and lamb and the uses to which they can be put are given 
in Table II, which may be followed as a guide whenever there is 
doubt as to the way in which a cut of either of these meats should 
be cooked. 

TABLE II 

NAMES AND IISKS OP MUTTON AND LAMB CITS 

Name OF Large Name of Small tt-,-- r> rTT^-c- 

CuT Cut ^^^^ °^ ^^^^ 

■Neck Broth, stew 

Chuck Stew, steamed 

Shoulder Boiled, steamed, braised, roast 

Rack ribs Chops, crown roast 

Breast Stew, roast, braised, stuffed 

(Loin Seven chops, roast, boiling 
Flank Stew 
Leg Roast, braising, broiling 
Saddle Roast 



P"ore quarter 



Hind quarter 



COOKING OF MUTTON AND LAMB 



PREPARATION OP ROASTS, CHOPS, AND STEWS 

33. The cookery processes applied in preparing mutton and 
lamb for the table do not differ materially from those applied in the 
preparation of other meats. However, directions for cooking mut- 
ton and lamb in the most practical ways are here given, so that the 
housewife may become thoroughly familiar wHh the procedure in 
preparing roasts, chops, and stews. 

34. Roast Leg of Mutton or Lamb. — Of all the principal 
cuts of mutton or lamb, the leg contains the smallest percentage of 
waste. It is, therefore, especially suitable for roasting and is gener- 
ally used for this purpose. In Fig. 9 are shown two views of a leg 



18 



MEAT 



§11 




(«) 



of lamb or mutton. That in (a) illustrates the leg with part of the 

loin attached, and that in (b), the leg trimmed and ready for cook- 
ing. In order to make the 
leg smaller, a slice resem- 
bling a round steak of 
beef is sometimes cut for 
broiling, as here shown. 
If desired, the leg may be 
boned and then stuflfed 
before roasting. Since 
these meats are character- 
ized by a very marked 
flavor, something tart or 
acid is generally served 
with them. 

To roast a leg of lamb 
or mutton, remove the 
caul, the pink skin, and the 
superfluous fat. Dredge 
the leg with flour, salt, 
and pepper, set in a roast- 
ing pan, and place in a 
hot oven. After the meat 
has cooked for 15 min- 
utes, lower the temper- 
ature, and bake for 2 
hours. Baste frequently 
with water to which has 
been added a small 
amount of bacon or ham 
fat and which should be 

put in the pan with the meat. Serve hot with something acid, such 

as mint sauce, currant or mint jelly, or spiced fruit. 

A mint sauce that will be found satisfactory for this purpose is 

made as follows : 

Mint Sauce 
2 Tb. powdered sugar ^ c. finely chopped mint leaves, 

I c. vinegar or 2 Tb. dried mint 

Add the sugar to the vinegar and heat. Pour this over the mint 
and steep on the back of the stove for 30 minutes. 




§ 11 MEAT 19 

35. Roast Saddle of Mutton.^ — While saddle is the name 
applied to the hind quarters of lamb and mutton, this term, as used 
in the cooking of such meat, refers to the piece that consists of the 
two sides of the loin cut off in one piece. It may be cut with or 
without the flank. In either form, it is rolled and then skewered or 
tied into shape. 

To roast such a piece, remove all superfluous fat, dredge with 
flour, salt, and pepper, place in a pan, and sear in a hot oven. Then 
reduce the heat, place a small quantity of water in the pan, and bake 
for 2^ to 3 hours, basting from time to time during this cooking 
process. Serve with or without mint sauce, as desired. 

36. Crown Roast of Lamb. — A very attractive roast is made 
by cutting the same number of corresponding ribs from each side 
of the lamb and trimming back the meat from the end of each rib. 
Such a roast is called a crozcii roast. Fitr. 10 shows a crown roast 




Fig. 10 

with the ribs trimmed, the two pieces fastened together, and paper 
frills placed on the ends of the bones. Such frills are usually 
added by the butcher, but they may be purchased in supply stores 
and put on in the home. 

To prepare a roast of this kind, cook in the same way as a roast 
leg or saddle. When it is sufficiently baked, fill the center with a 
cooked and seasoned vegetable. Brussels sprouts, peas, string beans, 
asparagus, and cauliflower are especially suitable for this purpose. 



20 



MEAT 



§11 



Just before serving, cover the ends of the bones with paper frills, as 
shown in the illustration. 

37. Lainb and Mutton Chops. — Chops of mutton or lamb 
are obtained from two sources. They may be cut from the ribs 
and have one bone in each cut or they may be cut from the loin, 




Fig. 11 

when they correspond to the steaks in beef. The loins and ribs of 
lamb, which are sometimes used for rolled racks, but from which 
chops are usually cut, are shown in Fig. 11. A rib chop cut from 
this piece has only a small part of solid lean meat and contains one 
rib bone. Such a chop can be made into a French chop, as shown in 
Fig. 12, by trimming the meat from the bone down to the lean part, 
or "eye," of the chop. Just before being served, a paper frill may 
be placed over the bone of a chop of this kind. Chops cut from the 




loin often have a strip of bacon or salt pork rolled around the edge 
and fastened with a skewer, as shown in Fig. 13. 

38. The most satisfactory way in which to prepare chops is 
either to broil them in a broiler or to pan-broil them. Apply to the 
cooking of them the same principles that relate to the preparation of 
steaks ; that is, have the pan or broiler hot, sear the chops quickly 
on both sides, and then cook them more slowly until well done, turn- 



§11 



MEAT 



21 



ing them frequently. The broiling of lamb chops should require 
only from 8 to 10 minutes, as they are seldom more than 1 inch 
thick. 

39. Lamb and Mutton Stews. — The cheaper cuts of lamb 
and mutton, such as the neck, chuck, and flank, are us'ed for the 
making of stews. Mutton, however, is not so satisfactory as lamb 
for such dishes, as its flavor is too strong. If mutton must be used, 
its flavor can be improved by adding 1 or 2 tablespoonfuls of vinegar 
during the cooking. The chief object in the making of lamb and 
mutton stews is, as in the case of beef and veal stews, to draw from 
the meat as much as possible of the flavoring and nutritive mate- 




FiG. 13 

rials. This can be accomplished by cutting up the meat into small 
pieces so as to increase the amount of surface exposed and by keep- 
ing the temperature low enough to prevent the proteins from coag- 
ulating. 

With these points in mind, proceed in the making of lamb or 
mutton stew in the same way as for beef stew. To improve the 
flavor of the stew, cook with it savory herbs and spices, such as bay 
leaf, parsley, and cloves. 



PREPARATIOIV OP LEFT-OVER LAMB AND Ml TTOIV 

40. Turkish Lamb. — No left-over meat lends itself more 
readily to the preparation of made dishes than lamb. Combined 
with tomatoes and rice and flavored with horseradish, it makes a 
very appetizing dish called Turkish lamb. The accompanying recipe 
should be carefully followed in preparing this dish. 
Turkish Lamb 

(Sufficient to Serve Six) 

2 Tb. butter He. diced lamb or mutton 

1 onion, chopped 1 Tb. horseradish 

I c. rice 1 tsp. salt 
1 c. water i tsp. pepper 

1 c. stewed tomatoes 



22 MEAT § 11 

Put the butter in a frying pan and to it add the chopped onion 
and the dry rice. Cook until the rice is browned. Then pour in 
the water and tomatoes and add the meat, horseradish, salt, and 
pepper. Simmer gently until the rice is completely cooked. 

41. Minced Lamb on Toast. — Any lamb that remains after 
a meal may be minced by chopping it fine or putting it through the 
food chopper. If it is then heated, moistened well with water or 
stock, and thickened slightly, it makes an excellent preparation to 
serve on toast. 

After mincing lean pieces of left-over lamb until they are very 
fine, put them in a buttered frying pan. Dredge the meat well with 
flour and allow it to brown slightly. Add enough water or stock to 
moisten well. Season with salt and pepper, cook until the flour has 
thickened, and then serve on toast. 

42. Scalloped Lamb or Mutton. — As a scalloped dish is 
usually pleasing to most persons, the accompanying recipe for scal- 
loped lamb or mutton will undoubtedly find favor. Both macaroni 
and tomatoes are combined with the meat in this dish, but rice could 
be substituted for the macaroni, if desired. 

To make scalloped lamb or mutton, arrange a layer of buttered 
crumbs in a baking dish, and on top of them place a layer of cooked 
macaroni, a layer of meat, and then another layer of macaroni. 
Over this pour enough stewed tomato to moisten the whole well. 
Season each layer with salt, pepper, and butter. Over the top, place 
a layer of buttered crumbs. Bake in a medium-hot oven until the 
whole is thoroughly heated. 

43. Spanish Stew. — Left-over pieces of mutton or lamb may 
also form the foundation of a very appetizing dish known as Spanish 
stew. Here tomatoes are also used, and to give the stew flavor chilli 
sauce is added. 

Spanish Stew 

(Sufficient to Serve Six) 

2 Tb. butter 1 c. stock or gravy 

1 onion, sliced 1 Tb. chilli sauce 

1 Tb. flour 1 red pepper, cut fine 

2 c. lamb or mutton, diced 2 tsp. salt 
1| c. stewed tomatoes 

Put the butter in a frying pan and brown the sliced onion in it. 
Add the flour and meat, and after browning them pour in the stewed 



§11 MEAT 33 

tomatoes and the stock or gravy. Season with the chilli sauce, the 
red pepper, and the salt. Cover and let simmer until the whole is 
well thickened and blended. 

44. Individual Lamb Pies. — Individual pies are always 
welcome, but when they are made of lamb or mutton they are 
especially attractive. The proportions required for pies of this 
kind are given in the accompanying recipe. 
Individual Lamb Pies 
2 c. diced lamb or mutton ^ c. peas, cooked or canned 

I c. diced carrots 1 c. gravy or thickened stock 

Cut into small pieces any left-over lamb or mutton. Cook the 
carrots until they are soft, add them, together with the peas, to the 
meat, and pour the gravy or thickened stock over all. Simmer 
gently for a few minutes. Line patty pans with a thin layer of 
baking-powder biscuit dough, fill with the mixture, and cover the 
top with another thin layer of the dough. Bake in a quick oven until 
the dough is baked. 



PORK 



GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PORK 

45. Pork is the flesh of slaughtered swine used as food. It is 
believed to be more indigestible than other meats, but if it is obtained 
from a young and properly fed animal, it is not only digestible, but 
highly appetizing, and, when eaten occasionally, it is very whole- 
some. 

The age of the animal from which pork is cut can be determined 
by the thickness of the skin ; the older the animal, the thicker the 
skin. To be of the best kind, pork should have pink, not red, flesh 
composed of fine-grained tissues, and its fat, which, in a well- 
fattened animal, equals about one-eighth of the entire weight, should 
be white and firm. Although all cuts of pork contain some fat, the 
proportion should not be too great, or the pieces will not contain 
as much lean as they should. However, the large amount of fat 
contained in pork makes its food value higher than that of other 
meats, unless they are excessively fat, and consequently difficult of 
digestion. 



24 MEAT § 11 

46. One of th(^ chief advantages of pork is that about nine- 
tenths of the entire dressed animal may be preserved by curing and 
smoking. Originally, these processes required a period of 2 to 
3 months for their completion, but they have gradually been short- 
ened until now only a few days are required for the work. Pork 
cured and smoked by the new methods, however, does not possess 
such excellent flavor and such good keeping qualities as that so 
treated by the longer process. Any one who has the right storage 
facilities to care for the meat properly will find it much more 
economical to purchase a whole carcass or a part of one and then 
salt, smoke, or pickle the various pieces that can be treated in this 
way than to piuxhasc this meat cut by cut as it is needed or desired. 



CUTS OF PORK 

47. Names of Pork Cuts. — The butcher usually buys a whole 
carcass of pork. He first divides it into halves by splitting it 
through the spine, and then cuts it up into smaller pieces according 
to the divisions shown in Fig. 14, which illustrates the outside and 
the inside of a dressed hog. As will be observed, the method of 
cutting up a hog differs greatly from the cutting of the animals 
already studied. After the head is removed, each side is divided 
into the shoulder, clear back fat, ribs, loin, middle cut, belly, ham, 
and two hocks. 

48. Uses of Pork Cuts. — Hogs are usually fattened before 
they are slaughtered, and as a result there is a layer of fat under 
the skin which is trimmed off and used in the making of lard. The 
best quality of lard, however, is made from the fat that surrounds 
the kidneys. This is called leaf lard, because the pieces of fat are 
similar in shape to leaves. Such lard has a higher melting point 
and is more flaky than that made from fat covering the muscles. 

49. The head of pork does not contain a great deal of meat, 
but, as the quality of this meat is very good, it is valuable for a 
number of special dishes, such as headcheese and scrapple. 

The hocks contain considerable gelatine, so they are used for 
dishes that solidify, or become firm, after they are made. 

50. A shoulder of pork cut roughly from the carcass is shown 
in Fig. 15. This piece provides both roasts and steaks, or, when 




Fig. 14 



§11 



MEAT 



27 



trimmed, it may be cured or smoked. The front leg, which is 
usually cut to include the lower part of the shoulder, is shown in 
Fig. 16. The ribs inside this cut, when cut from underneath, are 




sold as spareribs. This piece, as shown in Fig. 17, 
trimmed to make what is known as shoulder ham. 



generally 



51. The ribs and the loin cut in one piece are shown in Fig. 18. 
From this piece are obtained the most desirable chops and roasts. 
When a roast is desired, the rib bones are removed from the rib 
cut, which then resembles the piece shown in Fig. 19. Directly 
under the backbone in these cuts is the tenderest piece of pork to be 
had. When this is removed in one piece, it is, as in beef, called the 




tenderloin. Very often, however, it is left in to be cut up with the 
rest of the loin. 



52. The middle cut is commonly used for bacon, while the belly 
is most suitable for salt pork. These two cuts consist of large quan- 

WI-C3— 9 



28 



MEAT 



§11 



titles of fat and only narrow layers of lean. They are especially 
valuable for enriching and flavoring foods, such as beans, that are 
neither rich in fat nor highly flavored. 

53. The hind leg, or untrimmed ham, just as it is cut from the 
carcass, is shown in Fig. 20. When this piece is trimmed and ready 




Fig. 20 

for curing or for roasting, it appears as shown in Fig. 21. As will oe 
noticed, the outside skin, or rind, is not removed from either the 
shoulder or the ham. 

54. Table of Pork Cuts. — As is done in explaining the meats 
that have been considered previously, there is here presented a table, 




designated as Table III, that gives the names of the pork cuts and 
the uses to which they may be put. This table will assist the house- 



§11 MEAT 29 

wife materially in learning the names and uses of the various cuts 
of pork. 

TABLE III 
names and uses op pork cuts 

Names of Cuts Uses of Cuts 

Head Headcheese, boiling, baking 

Shoulder Steaks, roasting, curing, smoking 

Spareribs Roasting, boiling 

Belly Salt pork, curing 

Middle cut Bacon, curing, smoking 

Ribs Chops, roasting 

Loin Chops, roasting 

Ham Roasting, curing, smoking 

Back fat Lard 

Hock Boiling, making jelly 

Internal organs and trinmiings Sausage 



COOKING OF PORK 



FRESH PORK AND ITS PREPARATION 

55. Roast Pork. — In the preparation of pork for the table, 
and a roast in particular, several points must be taken into consider- 
ation. Unlike beef, which is often served rare, pork must be well 
done in order to be satisfactory. Rare pork to most persons is 
repulsive. Also, as a large part of the surface of a pork roast, 
especially one cut from the shoulder, loin, or ribs, is covered with 
a layer of fat, pork does not have to be seared to prevent the loss 
of juice, nor does it have to be put into such a hot oven as that 
required for beef. In fact, if the temperature of the oven is very 
high, the outside will finish cooking before the heat has had a chance 
to penetrate sufficiently to cook the center. While this makes no 
difference with meat that does not need to be thoroughly cooked, it 
is a decided disadvantage in the case of pork. 

56. When a shoulder of pork is to be roasted, it makes a very 
satisfactory dish if it is boned and stuffed before roasting. To bone 
such a piece, run a long, narrow knife all around the bone and cut 
it loose ; then pick up the bone by one end and shake it imtil it will 
pull out. Fill the opening thus formed with bread or cracker 
stuffing. 



80 MEAT § 11 

If an especially inviting roast of pork is desired, a crotvn roast 
should be selected, for this is just as attractive as a crown roast of 
lamb. It is made by cutting corresponding pieces from each side 
of the rib piece, trimming the bones clean as far back as the lean 
part of the chops, and fastening the pieces together. A garnish of 
fried apple rings is very attractive for such a roast. 

57. To cook a roast of any of these varieties, wipe the meat 
thoroughly, dredge it with flour, salt, and pepper, and place it on a 
rack in a dripping pan. Bake about 3 hours, depending on the size 
of the roast, and baste every 15 minutes with fat from the bottom 
of the dripping pan. 

After the roast is removed from tne roastmg pan, make a gravy 
as for any other roast. Serve with apple sauce, baked apples, cran- 
berry sauce, chilli sauce, pickles, or some other acid dish. Such an 
accompaniment aids considerably in the digestion of pork, for it 
cuts the large amount of fat that this meat contains and that so often 
retards the digestion, and hastens the fat through the stomach. 

58. Roast Pig'. — In some households, roasted pig is the 
favorite meat for the Thanksgiving or the Christmas dinner. There 
is sufficient reason for its popularity, for when properly prepared 
and attractively garnished, roasted pig offers a pleasing change 
from the meat usually served on such days. 

To be suitable for roasting, a pig should be not more tnan i month 
or 6 weeks old and should not weigh more than 7 or 8 pounds after 
it is cleaned. The butcher should prepare it for cooking by scalding 
ofif the hair, washing the pig thoroughly, inside and out, and with- 
drawing the entrails of the animal through an incision made in the 
under part of the body. 

59. ^^'hen the pig is received in the home, wash it thoroughly, 
within and without, wipe it dry, and fill it with stuffing. To make a 
stuffing suitable for this purpose, season 2 quarts of fine bread 
crumbs with 4 tablespoonfuls of chopped onion, 2 teaspoonfuls of 
salt, 1 teaspoonful of pepper, and ^ cupful of melted butter. Mix 
thoroughly and add 3 beaten eggs. If the stuffing needs moisture, 
add water or milk. Stufif the pig firmly with this stuffing, using 
every effort to restore its original shape. Then sew up the opening 
and truss the animal ; that is, draw the hind legs forwards and bend 
the front legs backwards under the body, and skewer and tie them 
into place. 



§ 11 MEAT 31 

With the animal in this shape, wipe it off with a damp cloth, 
dredge it with flour, and place it in a dripping pan, adding 1 cupful 
of boiling water in which 1 teaspoonful of salt has been dissolved. 
Roast in a moderate oven for at least 1-^- hours, or 20 minutes for 
each pound of pig. Baste frequently, first with butter and water 
and later with drippings. When the skin begins to brown slightly, 
rub over it a clean piece of cloth dipped in melted butter. Repeat 
this operation every 10 minutes until the meat is well done. Then 
remove the pig to a hot platter and garnish with parsley, lettuce, 
celery, or fried or baked apples. If a more ornamental garnishing 
is desired, place a lemon in the mouth and use cranberries for the 
eyes. In carving, cut the head off, split through the spine length- 
wise, remove the legs, and cut the ribs so as to form chops. 

60. Sauted or Broiled Pork. — Slices cut from the ribs and 
loin of pork are called chops, and those obtained from the shoulck-r 
and hind legs are called steaks. These, together with the tenderloin, 
the small piece of lean, tender meat lying under the bones of the 
loin and seldom weighing more than a pound, are especially suitable 
for sauteing or broiling.. When they are to be prepared by these 
processes, saute or broil them as any other meat, remembering, 
however, that pork must be well done. Because of this fact, a more 
moderate temperature must be employed than that used for beef- 
steak. 

61. Pork Chops in Tomato Sauce. — A slight change from 
the usual way of preparing pork chops can be had by cooking them 
with tomatoes. The combination of these two foods produces a 
dish having a very agreeable flavor. 

First brown the chops in their own fat in a frying pan, turning them 
frequently so that the surfaces will become evenly browned. When 
they have cooked for 15 minutes, pour enough strained stewed 
tomatoes over them to cover them well, and season with salt and 
pepper. Cover the pan tight, and allow them to simmer until the 
tomatoes become quite thick. Place the chops on a hot platter, pour 
the tomato sauce over them, and serve hot. 

62. Sauted Tenderloin of Pork. — Since the tenderloin of 
pork is a very tender piece of meat, it needs no accompaniment to 
make it a delicious dish, but sometimes a change of preparation is 
welcomed in order to give variety to the diet. The accompanying 



32 MEAT § 11 

directions should therefore be followed when something different 
from broiled tenderloin is desired. 

Cut the tenderloin into lengthwise slices and brown these slices 
in melted butter, turning them several times. Then remove to a 
cooler part of the stove, and let them cook slowly in the butter for 
15 minutes, taking care to have them closely covered and turning 
them once or twice so that they will cook evenly. At the end of this 
time, pour enough milk or cream in the pan to cover the meat well 
and cook for 15 minutes longer. \\'ith a skimmer, remove the meat; 
which should be very tender by this time, from the pan, and put it 
where it will keep hot. Make a gravy of the drippings that remain 
in the pan by thickening it with 1 tablespoon ful of flour, stirring it 
until it is thick and smooth and seasoning it to taste with salt and 
pepper. Pour the gravy over the meat and serve hot. 

63. Pork Sausag-e. — The trimmings and some of the internal 
organs of pork are generally utilized to make sausage by chopping 
them very fine and then highly seasoning the chopped meat. Pork 
in this form may be bought fresh or smoked and loose or in casings. 
It usually contains considerable fat and therefore shrinks upon being 
cooked, for the fat is melted by the heat and runs out of the sausage. 

To cook pork sausages put up in casings, place the required num- 
ber in a hot frying pan with a small quantity of hot water. Cover 
the pan with a lid and allow the sausages to cook. When they have 
swelled up and the skins, or casings, look as if they would burst, 
remove the cover and thoroughly prick each one with a sharp fork, 
so as to allow the fat and the water to run out. Then allow the water 
to evaporate and saute the sausages in their own fat, turning them 
frequently until they are well browned. 

To cook loose pork sausage, shape it into thin, flat cakes. Grease 
a frying pan slightly, in order to keep the cakes from sticking to 
the surface, place the cakes in the pan, and allow them to cook in 
the fat that fries out, turning them occasionally until both sides are 
well browned. 



CURED PORK AND ITS PREPARATION 

64. Under the heading of cured pork may be included many 
of the cuts of pork, for a large part of a pork carcass can be pre- 
served by curing. However, this term is usually restricted to 
include salt pork, bacon, and ham. As has already been learned, 



§ 11 MEAT -ia 

salt pork is obtained from the belly ; bacon, from the middle cut ; and 
ham, from the two hind legs of pork. 

65. Salt Pork. — As the cut used for salt pork is almost 
entirely fat, this piece is seldom used alone for the table. Occasion- 
ally, it is broiled to be served with some special food, such as fried 
apples, but for the most part it is used for larding ; that is, slices of 
it are laid across the surface of meat and fish that are lacking in fat 
and that therefore cook better and have a more agreeable flavor 
when fat in some form is added. Pork of this kind is usually 
bought by the pound and then sliced by the housewife as it is needed 
for cooking purposes. 

66. Bacon. — The middle cut of pork, upon being cured by 
smokino-, is rerarded as bacon. It is sometimes used for larding 




purposes, but as it contains more lean than salt pork, has a very 
pleasing flavor, and is the most easily digested fat known, it is much 
used for food. A piece that contains the usual proportion of fat 
and lean is shown in Fig. 22. The strip of fat that occurs between 
the rind, or outer coat, and the first layer of lean is the firmest and 
the best for larding. The fat that fries out of bacon is excellent 
for use in the cooking and seasoning of other foods, such as vege- 
tables and meats. When bacon is cooked for the table, its flavor will 
be improved if it is broiled rather than fried in its own fat. The 
rind of bacon should, as a rule, be trimmed off, but it should never 
be wasted, for it may be used to grease a pancake griddle or any 
pan in which food is to be cooked, provided the bacon flavor will 
not be objectionable. 



34 MEAT §11 

In purchasing bacon, it is usually more economical to buy the 
whole side, or the entire middle cut, but if smaller quantities are 
desired, any amount, either in one piece or in slices, may be bought. 
The commercially cut bacon, which is very thin and becomes very 
crisp in its preparation, may be bought with the rind retained or 
removed. In both of these forms, it is often put up in jars or packed 
neatly in flat pasteboard boxes. While such bacon is undoubtedly 
the most popular kind, it should be remembered that the more 
preparation that is put on such a food before it enters the home, 
the more expensive it becomes. Very satisfactory results can be 
obtained from bacon bought in the piece if care is used in cutting 
it. To secure very thin, even slices, a knife having a thin blade that 
is kept sharp and in good condition should always be used. 

67. Bacon and Eggs. — There are many combinations in which 
bacon is one of the foods, but no more palatable one can be found 
than bacon and eggs. This is generally a breakfast, dish; still there 
is no reason why it cannot be used at times for luncheon or supper 
to give variety. 

To prepare this combination of foods, first pan-broil the desired 
number of slices of bacon in a hot frying pan until they are crisp and 
then remove them to a warm platter. Into the fat that has fried 
out of the bacon, put the required number of eggs, which have first 
been broken into a saucer. Fry them until they reach the desired 
degree of hardness, and then remove to the platter containing the 
bacon. Serve by placing a slice or two of bacon on the plate with 
each egg. 

68. Bacon Combined Witli Other Foods.— Many other 
foods may be fried in the same way as eggs and served with bacon. 
For instance, sliced apples or sliced tomatoes fried in bacon fat 
until they become tender, but not mushy, are delicious when served 
with crisp pieces of bacon. Also, cold cereals, such as cream of 
wheat, oatmeal, corn-meal mush, etc., may be sliced and fried until 
crisp and then served with bacon. 

69. Ham. — The hind leg of pork, when cured and smoked, is 
usually known as ham. Fig.. 23 shows a ham from which the rind 
has not been removed. In such a ham, the proportion of fat and 
lean is about right, but when ham is bought with the rind removed, 
much of the fat is also taken off. The best hams weigh from 8 to 



§11 



MEAT 



35 



15 pounds, and have a thin skin, sohd fat, and a small, short 
tapering leg or shank. 

Several ways of cooking ham are in practice. Very often slices 
resembling slices of round steak are cut from the whole ham and 
then fried or broiled. If a larger quantity is desired, the entire ham 
or a thick cut may be purchased. This is boiled or baked and then 
served hot or cold. It is a good idea to purchase an entire ham and 
keep it in supply, cutting off slices as they are desired. In such an 
event, the ham should be kept carefully wrapped and should be 
hung in a cool, dry place. In cutting a ham, begin at the large end, 
as in Fig. 23, and cut off slices until the opposite end becomes too 




Fig. 23 

small to make good slices. The piece that remains may be cooked 
with vegetables, may be boiled and served either hot or cold, or, if 
it is only a small piece, may be used for making soup. 

70. Broiled Ham. — The methods of broiling and pan broiling 
are very satisfactory when applied to ham that is cut in slices. 
Ham is pan-broiled in the same way as other meats. To broil ham, 
place slices 1 inch thick on the hot broiler rack and sear quickly on 
both sides. Then reduce the temperature and broil for 15 to 18 min- 
utes, turning the ham every few minutes until done. Remove to a 
hot platter. Add a little water to the drippings in the broiler pan, 
pour this over the meat, and serve at once. 



36 MEAT § 11 

71. Ham Baked in Milk. — A change from the usual ways 
of preparing slices of ham can be had by baking them in milk. A 
point to remember in carrying out this method is that the meat must 
bake slowly in order to be tender when it is done. 

Secure a 2-inch slice of ham, place it in a dripping pan, and com- 
pletely cover it with milk. Put in a moderate oven and cook for 2 
or more hours. When the ham is done, its surface should be brown 
and the milk should be almost entirely evaporated. If the liquid 
added in the beginning is not sufficient, more may be added during 
the baking. 

72. Boiled Ham. — Sometimes it is desired to cook an entire 
ham, particularly when a large number of persons are to be served. 
The usual way to prepare a whole ham is to boil it. When it is 
sufficiently cooked, it may be served hot or kept until it is cold and 
then served in slices. Nothing is more appetizing for a light meal, 
as luncheon or supper, or for picnic lunches than cold sliced ham. 
Then, too, boiled ham is very delicious when it is fried until the 
edges are crisp. 

To prepare boiled ham, first soak the ham in cold water for 
several hours and then remove it and scrub it. Place it in a large 
kettle with the fat side down and cover well with cold water. Put 
over a slow fire and allow to come to the boiling point very slowly. 
Boil for 15 minutes and skim off the scum that has risen. Sim- 
mer slowly for about 5 hours, or at least 25 minutes for each 
pound of ham. Take from the kettle and remove the skin about 
two-thirds of the way back. It will be found that the skin will peel 
off easily when the ham is cooked enough. Garnish in any desirable 
way and serve hot or cold. 

73. Baked Ham. — Another very appetizing way in which to 
cook an entire ham is to bake it. This involves both cooking in 
water on the top of the stove and baking in the oven. While this 
recipe, as well as those preceding, specifies ham, it should be remem- 
bered that shoulder may be cooked in the same ways. 

For baked ham, proceed in the way just explained for boiled ham, 
but boil only 12 minutes for each pound. Take the ham from the 
kettle and allow it to cool enough to permit it to be handled. 
Remove the skin. Then place the ham in a roasting pan and pour 
over it 1 cupful of water. Bake 12 minutes for each pound and 
baste frequently while baking. Serve hot or cold. 



11 MEAT 37 



PREPARATION OF LEFT OVER PORK 

74. Cold Pork With Fried Apples. — A combination that 
most persons 'find agreeable and that enables the housewife to use 
up left-over pork, is cold pork and fried apples. To prepare this 
dish, remove the cores from sour apples and cut the apples into 
4-inch slices. Put these in a frying pan containing hot bacon fat 
and fry until soft and well browned. Slice cold pork thin and place 
in the center of a platter. Arrange the apples around the pork in 
a border. 

75. Scalloped Pork and Cabbage. — If not enough pork 
remains to serve alone, it can be combined with cabbage to make a 
most appetizing scalloped dish. The accompanying recipe shows just 
how to prepare such a dish. 

Scalloped Pork and Cabbage 

(Sufficient to Serve Six) 

2 c. small thin slices of pork 1| c. thin v\'hite sauce 

Vy c. cooked chopped cabbage | c. buttered crumbs 

Arrange the pork and cabbage in layers in a baking dish, having 

a layer of cabbage on top. Pour the white sauce over all and 

sprinkle the crumbs on top. Bake until the sauce boils and the 

crumbs are brown. 

76. Mock Chicken Salad. — The similarity in appearance 
of pork to chicken makes it possible to prepare a salad of cold pork 
that is a very good substitute for chicken salad. A salad of this kind 
can be used as the main dish in such a meal as luncheon or supper. 

Mock Chicken Salad 

(Sufficient to Serve Six) 

4 Tb. vinegar 1| c. diced celery 

2 c. diced pork Salad dressing 

Heat the vinegar and pour it over the diced pork. Set aside to 
chill. When ready to serve, add the diced celery and mix well. 
Pour the salad dressing over all and serve on crisp lettuce leaves. 



38 MEAT § 11 



SERVING AND CARVING OF MEAT 

77. The manner of carving and serving meat in the home 
depends to some extent on the kind of meat that is to be served. A 
way that is favored by some is to carve the meat before it is placed 
on the table and then serve it according to the style of service used. 
However, the preferable way is to place the platter containing the 
meat on the table, together with the plates, in front of the person 
who is to do the carving and serving. 

The carver should use considerable care in cutting and serving 
the meat so that the platter and the surrounding tablecloth will not 
become unsightly. To make each portion as attractive as possible, 
it should be cut off evenly and then placed on the plate with the 
best side up. Furthermore, the carving should be done in an econom- 
ical way in order that whatever remains after the first serving may 
be served later in the same meal, and what is not eaten at the first 
meal may be utilized to advantage for another. To obtain the best 
results in carving, a good carving knife should be secured and it 
should always be kept well sharpened. 

78. With the general directions clear in mind, the methods of 
carving and serving particular kinds of meat may be taken up. 
Chops, of course, require no carving. By means of a large fork, 
one should be placed on each person's plate. Steaks and roasts, 
however, need proper cutting in order that equally good pieces may 
be served to each person dining. To carve a steak properly, cut it 
across from side to side so that each piece will contain a portion of 
the tender part, as well as a share of the tougher part. When cut, 
the pieces should be strips that are about as wide as the steak is 
thick. It is often advisable to remove the bone from some steaks 
before placing them on the table. 

79. Roasts require somewhat more attention than steaks. 
Before they are placed on the table, any cord used for tying should 
be cut and removed and all skewers inserted to hold the meat in shape 
should be pulled out. To carve a roast of any kind, run the fork 
into the meat deeply enough to hold it firmly and then cut the meat 



§11 MEAT 39 

into thin slices across the grain. In the case of a roast leg that con- 
tains the bone, begin to carve the meat from the large end, cutting 
each slice down to the bone and then off so that the bone is left 
clean. Place round of beef and rolled roasts on the platter so that 
the tissue side, and not the skin side, is up, and then cut the slices off 
in a horizontal direction. To carve a rib roast properly, cut it 
parallel with the ribs and separate the pieces from the backbone. 



SAUSAGES AND MEAT PREPARATIONS 

80. In addition to the fresh, raw meats that the housewife can 
procure for her family, there are on the market numerous varieties 
of raw, smoked, cooked, and partly cooked meats, which are gener- 
ally included under the term sausages. These meats are usually 
highly seasoned, so they keep better than do fresh meats. They 
should not be overlooked by the housewife, for they help to simplify 
her labor and at the same time serve to give variety to the family 
diet. Still, it should be remembered that when meats are made 
ready for use before they are put on the market, the cost of the 
labor involved in their manufacture is added to the price charged 
for them. For this reason, the housewife must be prepared to pay 
more for meats of this kind than she would pay if she could prepare 
them at home. However, she need not be concerned regarding their 
safety, for the government's inspection and regulations prevent any 
adulteration of them. 

81. Among the numerous varieties of these meats, many of them 
are typical of certain localities, while others have a national or an 
international reputation. They also vary in the kind of meat used 
to make them. Some of them are made from beef, as frankfurters 
and certain kinds of bologna, while others are made from pork and 
include the smoked and unsmoked sausages. Livcrzvitrst is made 
from the livers of certain animals, and may be purchased loose or 
in skins. 

Some of these sausages are used so often in certain combinations 
of foods that they are usually thought of in connection with the 
foods that it is customary for them to accompany. Frankfurters 
and sauerkraut, pork sausage and mashed potatoes, liverwurst and 
fried corn-meal mush are well-known combinations of this kind. 



40 MEAT § 11 

82. Closely allied to these sausages, although not one of them, 
is a meat preparation much used in some localities and known as 
scrapple, or ponhasse. This is prepared by cooking the head of pork, 
removing the meat from the bones, and chopping it very fine. The 
pieces of meat are then returned to the broth in which the head was 
cooked and enough corn meal to thicken the liquid is stirred in. 
After the whole has boiled sufficiently, it is turned into molds and 
allowed to harden. When it is cold and hard, it can be cut into 
slices, which are sauted in hot fat. 

83. Besides scrapple, numerous other meat preparations, such 
as meat loaves of various kinds and pickled pig's feet, can usually 
be obtained in the market. While the thrifty housewife does not 
make a habit of purchasing meats of this kind regularly, there are 
times when they are a great convenience and also afford an oppor- 
tunity to vary the diet. 

PRErA RATION OF FOODS BY DEEP-FAT 
FRYING 



PRINCIPLES OF DEEP-FAT FRYING 

84. Up to this point, all frying of foods has been done by 
sauteing them; that is, frying them quickly in a small amount of fat. 
The other method of frying, which involves cooking food quickly 
in deep fat at a temperature of 350 to 400 degrees Fahrenheit, is 
used so frequently in the preparation of many excellent meat 
dishes, particularly in the use of left-overs, that specific directions 
for it are here given, together with several recipes that afford prac- 
tice in its use. No difficulty will be experienced in applying this 
method to these recipes or to other recipes if the underlying prin- 
ciples of deep-fat frying are thoroughly understood and the proper 
utensils for this work are secured. 

85. In the first place, it should be remembered that if foods 
prepared in this way are properly done, they are not so indigestible 
as they are oftentimes supposed to be, but that incorrect preparation 
makes for indigestibility in the finished product. For instance, 
allowing the food to soak up quantities of fat during the frying is 
neither economical nor conducive to a digestible dish. To avoid 
such a condition, it is necessary that the mixture to be fried be made 



n 



MEAT 



41 



of the proper materials and be prepared in the right way. One of 
the chief requirements is that the surface of the mixture be properly- 
coated with a protein material, such as egg or egg and milk, before 
it is put into the fat or that the mixture contain the correct pro- 
portion of egg so that its outside surface will accomplish the same 
purpose. The reason for this requirement is that the protein mate- 
rial is quickly coagulated by the hot fat and thus prevents the 
entrance of fat into the inside material of the fried food. 

Care must be taken also in the selection of the fat that is used 
for deep-fat frying. This may be in the form of an oil or a solid 
fat and may be either a vegetable or an animal fat. However, a 
vegetable fat is usually 
preferred, as less smoke 
results from it and less 
flavor of the fat remains 
in the food after it is 
cooked. 




86. The utensils re- 
quired for deep-fat fry- 
ing are shown in Fig. 24. 
They consist of a wire 
basket and a pan into 
which the basket will tit. 
As will be observed, the 
pan in which the fat is y\g. 24 

put has an upright metal 

piece on the side opposite the handle. Over this fits a piece of wire 
with which the basket is equipped and which is attached to the side 
opposite the handle of the basket. This arrangement makes it 
possible to drain the fat from whatever food has been fried without 
having to hold the basket over the pan. 



APPLICATION OF DEEP-FAT FRYING 

87. With the principles of deep-fat frying well in mind, the 
actual work of frying foods by this method may be taken up. 
Numerous foods and preparations may be subjected to this form 
of cookery, but attention is given at this time to only croquettes and 
timbale cases. Croquettes are small balls or patties usually made 



42 



MEAT 



§11 



of some finely minced food and fried until brown. Timbale cases 
are shells in which various creamed foods are served. As these two 
preparations are representative of the various dishes that can be 
cooked by frying in deep fat, the directions given for these, if care- 
fully mastered, may be applied to many other foods. 

88. Frying of Croquettes. — After the mixture that is to be 
fried has been prepared, and while the croquettes are being shaped, 
have the fat heating in the deep pan, as in Fig. 24. Before the 
food is immersed, test the temperature of the fat in the manner 

shown in Fig. 25, to 
make sure that it is hot 
enough. To do this, put 
a |-inch cube of bread 
in the hot fat and keep 
it there for 40 seconds. 
If at the end of this time 
it is a golden brown, it 
may be known that the 
fat is sufficiently hot for 
any mixture. Be care- 
ful to regulate the heat 
so as to keep the fat as 
near this temperature as 
^^^' -^ possible, for it should 

be remembered that each time a cold food is immersed in hot fat, 
the temperature is lowered. Usually, a few minutes' frying is neces- 
sary to assure this regulation of the temperature. 

As soon as the correct temperature is reached, put several of the 
croquettes in the basket and set the basket in the pan of hot fat so 
that the croquettes are entirely covered. Fry until a good brown 
color is secured. Then lift the basket out of the fat and allow it to 
drain until all the fat possible has dripped from it. Finally remove 
the croquettes from the basket and place them on any kind of paper 
that will absorb the excessive fat. Serve at once or keep hot until 
ready to serve. 

89. Veal Croquettes.^ — Veal that remains from a roast after 
it has been served once can be utilized in no better way than in the 
making of croquettes; or, if desired, veal may be cooked especially 
for this purpose. When such croquettes are served with a sauce 




§ 11 MEAT 43 

of any desirable kind, such as white sauce or tomato sauce, or with 
left-over gravy, no more appetizing dish can be found. 

Veal Croquettes 

(Sufficient to Serve Six) 

2 c. cold ground veal Salt and pepper 

1 c. thick white sauce 1 egg 

2 Tb. chopped onion Fine crumbs 
1 Tb. chopped parsley 

Mix the ground veal with the white sauce, add the onion and 
parsley, and salt and pepper to taste. Shape into oblong croquettes. 
Roll first in the beaten egg, which, if necessary, may be increased 
by the addition of a little milk, and then in the crumbs. Fry in 
deep fat until a golden brown. Serve with or without sauce. 

90. Sw^eetbread Croquettes. — An extremely palatable dish 
can be made by frying in deep fat sweetbreads cut any desirable 
shape and size. These are usually served with a vegetable, and 
often a sauce of some kind is served over both. 

To prepare the sweetbreads, parboil them according to the direc- 
tions given in Art. 17. Cut them into the kind of pieces desired, 
sprinkle the pieces with salt and pepper, and dip them into beaten 
egg and then into crumbs. Fry in deep fat and serve with a vege- 
table or a sauce or both. 

91. Rice-and-Meat Patties. — Sometimes not enough meat 
remains after a meal to make a tasty dish by itself. In such a case, 
it should be combined with some other food, especially a starchy 
one, so as to extend its flavor and produce a dish that approaches 
nearer a balanced ration than meat alone does. A small amount of 
any kind of meat combined with rice and the mixture then formed 
into patties, or croquettes, provides both an appetizing and a nutri- 
tious dish. 

Rice-and-Meat Patties 

(Sufficient to Serve Six) 

1 c. finely chopped left-over meat 1 tsp. celery salt 

1 c. cold steamed rice Salt and pepper 

i; c. thick white sauce 1 egg 

1 Tb. chopped onion Fine crumbs 

Mix the meat and rice, stir into them the white sauce, onion, and 
celery salt, and salt and pepper to taste. Shape into croquettes, or 
patties ; roll first in the egg and then in the crumbs. Fry in deep fat 
until golden brown and serve with any desirable sauce. 

WI-C3-10 



44 



MEAT 



§11 



92. Timbale Cases. — Such foods as creamed sweetbreads, 
creamed sweetbreads and mushrooms, and other dehcate foods that 

are served in small quan- 
tities can be made very 
attractive by serving 
them in timbale cases. 
These are made out of 
a batter by means of a 
timbale iron and fried 
in deep fat until brown. 
In serving them, place 
them either on a small 
plate or on the dinner 
^"=- -^ plate with the rest of 

the dinner. To make them especially attractive, dip the edge into 
egg white and then into very finely chopped parsley. Fig. 26 shows 
creamed sweetbreads served in a timbale case. 




93. To prepare timbale cases, a timbale iron, such as is shown 
in Fig. 27, is required. Such an iron consists of a fluted piece of 
metal that is either solid or hollow and that has attached to it a 
handle long enough to 
keep the hand sufficiently 
far away from the hot 
fat. 

The batter required 
for timbale cases and 
the directions for com- 
bining them are as fol- 
lows : 

Timbale-Case Batter 

(Sufficient to Make Twenty) 



legg 
^ c. milk 
^ tsp. salt 

Beat the 
fork just 



1 tsp. sugar 
f c. flour 



egg with a 

enough to 

break it up thoroughly. Add the milk 

flour with as little beating as possible 




salt, and sugar. Stir in the 
After preparing this mix- 



ture, allow it to stand for ^ hour, so that any air it contains in the 



§11 



MEAT 



45 




Fig. 28 



form of bubbles may escape and thus prevent the formation of holes 
and bubbles in the finished timbale cases. 

When about to use the batter, pour it into a cup or some other 
small utensil that is just large enough to admit the iron easily. The 
iron must be nearly 
covered with batter, but 
no large amount of it 
will be needed if a small 
utensil is used. Dip the 
iron into the hot fat, as 
shown in Fig. 27, lift it, 
and allow it to drip. 
Then place it in the bat- 
ter in the way shown in 
Fig. 28, being careful 
not to permit the batter 
to come quite to the top 
of the iron, and remove 
it at once. Place it im- 
mediately into the hot fat, as in Fig. 29, allowing the fat to come 
higher on the iron than the batter does. This precaution will 

prevent the formation 
of a ridge of bubbles 
around the top of the 
timbale case. Fry in 
the deep fat until the 
case is nicely browned, 
as shown in Fig. 26. 
Remove the iron from 
the fat, and allow it to 
drip. Then carefully re- 
move the timbale case 
from the iron with a 
fork and place it on 
paper that will absorb 
^'•^-^ the fat. Fill with the de- 

sired mixture and serve. If the first few timbale cases are not a 
success, do not be discouraged, but continue the process and profit by 
the mistakes that are made. 




MEAT 

(PART 2) 



EXAMINATION QUESTIONS 

(1) (a) What is veal? (b) From animals of what age is the best veal 
obtained ? 

(2) Compare veal and beef as to characteristics. 

(3) What cuts of veal are most suitable for: (a) roasts? (b) cutlets? 
(c) soup and stews? (d) chops? 

(4) (a) What organs of veal are used for foods? (/;) What are sweet- 
breads ? 

(5) (a) Why is veal more indigestible than beef? (b) What important 
point must be remembered concerning the cooking of veal? 

(6) (a) What substance in veal is utilized in the preparation of jellied 
veal? (h) Explain how this dish is prepared. 

(7) (a) At what age is sheep sold as lamb? (b) How do lamb and 
mutton differ as to food substances ? 

(8) Compare the flesh of lamb and mutton as to appearance. 

(9) As they apply to lamb and mutton, explain the terms: (a) rack; 
(h) saddle. 

(10) Explain why some cuts of lamb and mutton are tough and others 
tender. 

(11) What is: (a) a crown roast of lamb? (b) a French chop? 

(12) (a) Describe pork of the best kind, (b) Why is the food value of 
pork higher than that of other meats? 

(13) (a) Name the cuts of pork, (b) What is meant by leaf lard? 

(14) What important points must be taken into consideration in the cooking 
of pork? 

(15) (a) Name some of the accompaniments that are usually served with 
pork, (b) What is the purpose of these accompaniments? 

(16) (a) For what purpose is salt pork generally used? (b) What is 
bacon? (c) To what uses is bacon put? 

(17) (a) Give the general directions for the carving and serving of meat. 
(b) Explain how to carve and serve a steak. 

(18) (a) What is meant by deep-fat frying? (b) Why must a food that 
is to be fried in deep fat contain or be coated with a protein material ? 

(19) (a) What utensils are necessary for deep-fat frying? (b) Explain 
the procedure in frying croquettes in deep fat. 

(20) (a) For what purpose are timbale cases used? (b) Explain how to 
make a batter for timbale cases. 



ADDITIONAL WORK 

Select a cut of beef that you consider most desirable from an economical 
standpoint. Buy a quantity that may be used to the greatest advantage for your 
family. Prepare it in any way you desire. 

State the number of pounds purchased, the price of the meat, the number of 
meals in which it was served, and the number of persons (tell how many adults 
and how many children) served at each meal. Estimate the cost of each portion 
by dividing the cost of the whole by the number of persons served. 

Make up an original dish in which left-over meat is used and submit the 
recipe to us. 

§11 



POULTRY AND GAME 



rOULTRY 



POULTRY AS A FOOD 

1. Poultry is the term used to designate birds that have been 
domesticated, or brought under the control of man, for two pur- 
poses, namely, the eggs they produce and the flesh food they supply. 
All the common species of domestic fowls — chickens, ducks, geese, 
turkeys, guinea fowls, and pigeons — are known as poultry. How- 
ever, none of these species is included under this term unless it is 
raised for at least one of the two purposes mentioned. As the term 
is to be understood in this Section, poultry includes all domestic 
fowls that are killed in order that their flesh may be cooked and 
used as food for human beings. Of course, many wild birds are 
killed for the flesh food they furnish, but they are classed under the 
term game. 

2. Poultry is probably never a necessity in the ordinary dietary, 
and when prices are high it is a decided luxury. Still it does aid 
materially in relieving the monotony of the usual protein foods, and 
it supplies that "something out of the ordinary" for special occa- 
sions. Then, too, it is often valuable in the diet of an invalid or 
some person with a poor appetite. Poultry is, of course, used more 
in some homes than in others ; yet there is scarcely a home in which 
it is not served some time or another. A knowledge of this food 
and its preparation and serving will therefore prove to be a valuable 
asset to any housewife. 

3. To arrive at a knowledge of the vise of poultry as a food, the 
housewife must necessarily become familiar with its selection and 

COPYRIGHTED BY INTERNATIONAL EDUCATIONAL PUBLISHING COMPANY. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 

§12 



2 POULTRY AND GAME § 12 

purchase. Then she must give attention to both its preparation for 
cooking and its actual cooking, and, finally, to its serving. In all 
these matters she will do well to adhere to the practice of economy, 
for, at best, poultry is usually an expensive food. Before entering 
into these matters in detail, however, it will be well to look into 
them in a general way. 

4. In the selection of poultry, the housewife should realize that 
poultry breeders have so developed certain breeds, even of the same 
species, that they are better for table use than others. The flesh of 
any breed of poultry may be improved by feeding the birds good 
food and giving them proper care ; and it is by applying these prin- 
ciples that the breeders are enabled to better the quality of this food. 
Other things also influence the quality of poultry flesh as food, as, 
for example, the way in which the poultry is prepared for market 
and the care it receives in transportation and storage. Unless these 
are as they should be, they have a detrimental effect on poultry, 
because such food is decidedly perishable. 

It is possible to exercise economy in the purchase of poultry, but 
before the housewife can do this she must be able to judge the age 
of each kind she may desire. On the age depends to a great extent 
the method of cookery to be followed in preparing the poultry for 
the table. Likewise, she must know the marks of cold-storage 
poultry, as well as those of poultry that is freshly killed ; and she 
must be familiar with the first marks of deterioration, or decay, that 
result from storing the food too long or improperly. 

Economy may also be practiced in preparing poultry for cooking. 
To bring this about, however, the housewife should realize that the 
best method of preparing any kind of poultry for cooking is always 
the most economical. It means, too, that she should understand 
thoroughly the methods of drawing and cutting, so that she may 
either do this work herself or direct it. 

The way in which poultry is cooked has a bearing on the cost of 
this food, too. For example, a young, tender bird prepared by a 
wrong method not only is a good dish spoiled, but is a waste of 
expensive material. Likewise, an older bird, which has more flavor 
but tougher tissues, is almost impossible as food if it is not properly 
prepared. Both kinds make appetizing dishes and do not result in 
waste if correct methods of cooking are followed in their prepa- 
ration. 



§12 POULTRY AND GAME 3 

Even the way in which poultry is served has a bearins; on the cost 
of this food. For this reason, it is necessary to know how to carve, 
as well as how to utilize any of this food that may be left over, if 
the housewife is to get the most out of her investment. 



SELECTION OF POULTRY 



GENERAL, INFORMATIOX 

5. The selection of any kind of poultry to be used as food is a 
matter that should not be left to the butcher. Rather, it should be 
done by some one who understands the purpose for which the 
poultry is to be used, and, in the home, this is a duty that usually 
falls to the housewife. There are a number of general facts about 
poultry, and a knowledge of them will assist the housewife greatly 
in performing her tasks. 

6. Classification of Poultry. — Poultry breeders and dealers 
divide the domestic fowls into three classes. In the first class are 
included those which have combs, such as chickens, turkeys, and 
guinea fowls. Quails and pheasants belong to this class also, but 
they are very seldom domesticated. The birds in this class are 
distinguished by two kinds of tissue — light meat on the breast and 
dark meat on the other parts of the body. In the second class are 
included those fowls which swim, such as ducks and geese. These 
are characterized by web feet and long thick bills, and their meat 
is more nearly the same color over the entire body. The third class 
is comprised of birds that belong to the family of doves. Pigeons, 
which are called squabs when used as food, are the only domesti- 
cated birds of this class. They stand between the other two classes 
with respect to their flesh, which has some difference in color 
between the breast and other muscles, but not so much as chicken 
and other fowls of the first class. 

7. Influence of Feeding- and Care on Quality. — To 

some extent, the breed affects the quality of poultry as food; still 
this is a far less important matter than a number of things that the 
purchaser is better able to judge. Among the factors that greatly 
influence the quality are the feeding and care that the birds receive 
up to the time of slaughter. These affect not only the flavor and the 



4 POULTRY AND GAME § 12 

tenderness of the tissue, as well as the quantity of tissue in propor- 
tion to bone, but also the healthfulness of the birds themselves. To 
keep the birds in good health and to build up sufficient flesh to make 
them plump, with as much meat as possible on the bones and a fair 
amount of fat as well, the food they get must be clean and of the 
right kind. Likewise, the housing conditions must be such that the 
birds are kept dry and sufficiently warm. The living space, also, 
must be adequate for the number that are raised. Domestic fowls 
are not discriminating as to their food, and when they are forced 
to live in dirt and filth they will eat more or less of it and thus injure 
the quality of their flesh. Poultry that comes into the market 
looking drawn and thin, with blue-looking flesh and no fat, shows 
evidence of having had poor living conditions and inadequate feed- 
ing. Such poultry will be found to have a less satisfactory flavor 
than that which has received proper care. 

8. Effect of Sex on Quality. — When birds of any kind are 
young, sex has very little to do with the quality of the flesh. But 
as they grow older the flesh of males develops a stronger flavor than 
that of females of the same age and also becomes tougher. How- 
ever, when birds, with the exception of mature ones, are dressed, it 
would take an expert to determine the sex. The mature male is 
less plump than the female, and it is more likely to be scrawny. 
Likewise, its spurs are larger and its bones are large in proportion 
to the amount of flesh on them. 

Very often the reproductive organs of young males are removed, 
and the birds are then called capons. As the capon grows to 
maturity, it develops more of the qualities of the hen. Its body 
becomes plump instead of angular, the quality of its flesh is much 
better than that of the cock, and the quantity of flesh in proportion 
to bone is much greater. In fact, the weight of a capon's edible 
flesh is much greater than that of either a hen or a cock. In the 
market, a dressed capon can usually be told by the long tail and wing 
feathers that are left on, as well as by a ring of feathers around 
the neck. Female birds that are spayed are called poulards. Spay- 
ing, or removing the reproductive organs, of female birds, however, 
makes so little improvement that it is seldom done. 

9. Preparation of Poultry for Market. — The manner in 
which poultry is prepared for market has a great bearing on its 
quality as food. In some cases, the preparation falls to the pro- 



§ 12 POULTRY AND GAME 5 

ducer, and often, when birds are raised in quantities, they are sold 
aHve and dressed by the butchen However, poultry that is to be 
shipped long distances and in large quantities or stored for long 
periods of time is usually prepared at a slaughtering place. This 
process of slaughtering and shipping requires great care, for if 
attention is not given to details, the poultry will be in a state of 
deterioration when it reaches the consumer and therefore unfit for 
food. 

In order to avoid the deterioration of poultry that is slaughtered 
some distance from the place of its consumption, each bird is well 
fed up to within 24 hours before it is killed. Then it is starved so 
that its alimentary tract will be as empty as possible at the time of 
killing. Such birds are killed by cutting the large blood vessel run- 
ning up to the head. When properly done, this method of killing 
allows almost all the blood to be drained from the body and the 
keeping qualities are much improved. At practically the same 
time, the brain is pierced by the knife thrust, and as soon as 
the bleeding commences the fowl becomes paralyzed. As the 
tissues relax, the feathers may be pulled easily from the skin 
without immersing the bird in hot water. This method of plucking, 
known as dry plucking, is preferable when the skin must be kept 
intact and the poultry kept for any length of time. The head and 
feet are left on and the entrails are not removed. The poultry is 
then chilled to the freezing point, but not below it, after which the 
birds are packed ten in a box and shipped to the market in refrigera- 
tor cars or placed in cold storage. Unless the poultry is to be cooked 
immediately after slaughter, such measures are absolutely neces- 
sary, as its flesh is perishable and will not remain in good condition 
for a long period of time. 

10. Cold-storage Poultry. — Poultry that has been properly 
raised, killed, transported, and stored is very likely to come into the 
market in such condition that it cannot be readily distinguished 
from freshly killed birds. When exposed to warmer temperatures, 
however, storage poultry spoils much more quickly than does fresh 
poultry. For this reason, if there is any evidence that poultry has 
been in storage, it should be cooked as soon as possible after 
purchase. 

There are really two kinds of cold-storage poultry: that which 
is kept at a temperature just above freezing and delivered within 



6 rOULTRY AND GAME § 12 

a few weeks after slaughtering, and that which is frozen and kept 
in storage a much longer time. When properly cared for, either 
one is preferable to freshly killed poultry that is of poor quality 
or has had a chance to spoil. Poultry that has been frozen must be 
thawed carefully. It should be first placed in a refrigerator and 
allowed to thaw to that temperature before it is placed in a warmer 
one. It should never be thawed by putting it into warm water. 
Thawing it in this way really helps it to decompose. 

A sure indication of cold-storage poultry is the pinched look it 
possesses, a condition brought about by packing the birds tightly 
against one another. Storage poultry usually has the head and feet 
left on and its entrails are not removed. Indeed, it has been deter- 
mined by experiment that poultry will keep better if these precau- 
tions are observed. The removal of the entrails seems to affect the 
internal cavity of the bird so that it does not keep well, and as a 
matter of safety it should be cooked quickly after this has been 
done in the home. 



SELECTION OF CHICKEN 

11. To be able to select chicken properly, the housewife must 
be familiar with the terms that are applied to chickens to designate 
their age or the cookery process for which they are most suitable. 
Chicken is a general name for all varieties of this kind of poultry, 
but in its specific use it means a common domestic fowl that is less 
than 1 year old. Fozvl is also a general term; but in its restricted 
use in cookery it refers to the full-grown domestic hen or cock over 
1 year of age, as distinguished from the chicken or pullet. A broiler 
is chicken from 2 to 4 months old which, because of its tenderness, 
is suitable for broiling. A frying chicken is at least 6 months old, 
and a roasting chicken is between 6 months and 1 year old. With 
these terms understood, it can readily be seen that if fried chicken 
is desired a 2-year-old fowl would not be a wise purchase. 

The quality of the bird is the next consideration in the selection 
of chicken. A number of things have a bearing on the quality. 
Among these, as has already been pointed out, are the feeding and 
care that the bird has received during its growth, the way in which 
it has been prepared for market, and so on. All of these things may 
be determined by careful observation before making a purchase. 
However, if the bird is drawn, and especially if the head and feet 
are removed, there is less chance to determine these things accurately. 



§1- 



POULTRY AND GAME 



12. General Marks of Good Quality. — A chicken older 
than a broiler that has been plucked should not be scrawny nor 
drawn looking like that shown in Fig. 1, nor should the flesh have 
a blue tinge that shows through the skin. Rather, it should be 




plump and well rounded like the one shown in Fig. 2. There should 
be a sufficient amount of fat to give a rich, yellow color. It should 
be plucked clean, and the skin should be clear and of an even color 
over the entire bird. Tender, easily broken skin indicates a young 
bird ; tougher skin indicates an older one. The skin should be 




whole and unbroken ; likewise, when pressed with the fingers, it 
should be neither flabby nor stiff, but pliable. 

13. The increase of age in a chicken is to some extent an advan- 
tage, because with age there is an increase in flavor. Thus, a year- 
old chicken will have more flavor than a broiler. However, after 



8 POULTRY AND GAME § 12 

more than a year, the flavor increases to such an extent that it 
becomes strong and disagreeable. With the advance of age there 
is also a loss of tenderness in the flesh, and this after 1^ or 2 years 
becomes so extreme as to render the bird almost unfit for use. As 
the age of a chicken increases, the proportion of flesh to bone also 
increases up to the complete maturity of the bird. Hence, one 
large bird is a more economical purchase than two small ones that 
equal its weight, because the proportion of bone to flesh is less in 
the large bird than in the small ones. 

14. Determining- the Age of Chicken. — An excellent way 
in which to determine the age of a chicken that has been dressed 
consists in feeling of the breast bone at the point where it protrudes 
below the neck. In a very young chicken, a broiler, for instance, 
the point of this bone will feel like cartilage, which is firm, elastic 
tissue, and may be very easily bent. If the bird is about a year old, 
the bone will be brittle, and in a very old one it will be hard and 
will not bend. 

15. If the head has been left on, the condition of the beak is 
a means of determining age. In a young chicken, it will be smooth 
and unmarred ; in an old one, it will be rough and probably darker 
in color. If the feet have been left on, they too will serve to indi- 
cate the age. The feet of a young chicken are smooth and soft; 
whereas, those of an old bird are rough, hard, and scaly. The 
claws of a young one are short and sharp ; but as the bird grows 
older they grow stronger and become blunt and marred with use. 
The spur, which is a projection just above the foot on the back of 
each leg, is small in the young chicken, and increases in size as the 
age increases. However, the spurs are more pronounced in males 
than in females. 

16. Another way of telling the age of dressed chicken is to 
observe the skin. After plucking, young birds usually have some 
pin feathers left in the skin. Pin feathers are small unformed 
feathers that do not pull out with the larger ones. Older birds are 
usually free from pin feathers, but have occasional long hairs 
remaining in the skin after the feathers have been plucked. These 
do not pull out readily and must be singed off when the chicken is 
being prepared for cooking. 



§12 POULTRY AND GAME 9 

17. Determining: the Freshness of Chicken. — There are 
a number of points that indicate whether or not a chicken is fresh. 
In a freshly killed chicken, the feet will be soft and pliable and 
moist to the touch ; also, the head will be unshrunken and the eyes 
full and bright. The flesh of such a chicken will give a little when 
pressed, but no part of the flesh should be softer than another. As 
actual decomposition sets in, the skin begins to discolor. The first 
marks of discoloration occur underneath the legs and wings, at the 
points where they are attached to the body. Any dark or greenish 
color indicates decomposition, as does also any slimy feeling of the 
skin. The odor given off by the chicken is also an indication of 
freshness. Any offensive odor, of course, means that the flesh has 
become unfit for food. 

18. Live Chickens. — Occasionally chickens are brought to 
the market and sold alive. This means, of course, that the birds are 
subjected to a certain amount of fright and needless cruelty and that 
the work of slaughtering falls to the purchaser. The cost, however, 
is decreased a few cents on the pound. Such birds must be chosen 
first of all by weight and then by the marks that indicate age, which 
have already been given. 

SELECTIOX OF POIXTRY OTHER THA\ CHICKEN 

19. The determination of quality, especially freshness, is much 
the same for other kinds of poultry as it is for chicken. In fact, the 
same points apply in most cases, but each kind seems to have a few 
distinguishing features, which are here pointed out. 

20. Selection of Turkeys. — Turkeys rank next to chickens 
in popularity as food. They are native to America and are perhaps 
better known here than in foreign countries. Turkey is a much 
more seasonal food than chicken, it being best in the fall. Cold- 
storage turkey that has been killed at that time, provided it is prop- 
erly stored and cared for, is better than fresh turkey marketed out 
of season. 

21. The age of a turkey can be fairly accurately told by the 
appearance of its feet. Very young turkeys have black feet, and as 
they mature the feet gradually grow pink, so that at more than 
1 year old the feet will be found to be pink. However, as the bird 
grows still older, the color again changes, and a 3-year-old turkey 



10 POULTRY AND GAME § 12 

will have dull-gray or blackish looking feet. The legs, too, serve 
to indicate the age of turkeys. Those of a young turkey are smooth, 
but as the birds grow older they gradually become rough and 
scaly. A young turkey will have spurs that are only slightly 
developed, whereas an old turkey will have long, sharp ones. 

22. Turkeys are seldom marketed when they are very young. 
But in spite of the fact that this is occasionally done, the mature 
birds are more generally marketed. Turkeys often reach a large 
size, weighing as much as 20 to 25 pounds. A mature turkey has 
proportionately a larger amount of flesh and a smaller amount of 
bone than chicken ; hence, even at a higher price per pound, turkey 
is fully as economical as chicken. 

23. Selection of Ducks. — Ducks probably come next to tur- 
keys in popularity for table use. Young ducks are sold in the 
market during the summer and are called spring duck. The mature 
ducks may be purchased at any time during the year, but they are 
best in the winter months. 

The flexibility of the windpipe is an excellent test for the age of 
ducks. In the young bird, the windpipe may be easily moved; 
whereas, in the old one, it is stationary and quite hard. The meat 
of ducks is dark over the entire bird, and the greatest amount is 
found on the breast. Its flavor is quite typical, and differs very 
much from turkey and chicken. However, there is a comparatively 
small amount of meat even on a good-sized duck, and it does not 
carve to very good advantage ; in fact, more persons can be served 
from a chicken or a turkey of the same weight. Young ducks are 
rather difficult to clean, as a layer of fine down, which is not easily 
removed, covers the skin. 

24. Selection of Geese. — Geese are much more commonly 
used for food in foreign countries than in America. Their age may 
be told in the same way as that of ducks, namely, by feeling of the 
windpipe. The flesh is dark throughout and rather strongly flav- 
ored. The fat is used quite extensively for cooking purposes, and 
even as a butter substitute in some countries. Because of this fact, 
geese are generally fattened before they are slaughtered, and often 
half the weight of the bird is fat. The livers of fattened geese 
reach enormous proportions and are considered a delicacy. They 
are used for pdtc dc fois gras. Usually, this is put up in jars and 
brings a very high price. 



§12 



POULTRY AND GAME 



11 



25. Selection of Pigeons. — Pigeons are raised primarily for 
their use as squabs. These are young birds about 4 weeks old, and 
their meat is tender and agreeable to the taste. The meat of 
the mature pigeon becomes quite tough and unpalatable. The 
breast is the only part of the bird that has meat on it in any quan- 
tity, and this meat is slightly lighter in color than that which comes 
from the remainder of the body. Midsummer is the best season 
for squabs, but they can be purchased at other times of the year. 
The cost of sqviabs is too high to allow them to be used extensively 
as a food in the ordinary household. 

26. Selection of Guinea Fo-vvls. — Guinea fowls are coming 
into common use as food. The yovmg birds are preferable to the 

TABLE I 

GriDE TO THE SELECTIOX OF POl LTRY 



Market Name 



Squab broiler . . . , 

Broiler 

Frying chicken . . . 
Roasting chicken . 

Fowl , 

Capon 

Turkey broiler . . . 
Roasting turkey . , 

Spring duck 

Roasting duck . . . . 

Green goose 

Roasting goose . . . 

Squab , 

Guinea hen broiler. 
Guinea fowl 



Weight 
Pounds 



11 

2 
3 

6 
5 

10 
H to 4 
8 to 25 
1|- to 2i 
4 to 6 

n to 2i 

4 to 8 
itof 
1 to 2 
3 to 5 



Age 



Season 



6 to 8 wk. 

2 to 4 mo. 

6 mo. 

6 mo. to 1 yr. 

Over 1 yr. 
6 mo. to 1 yr. 

6 to 8 ^^■k. 
6 mo. to 3 yr. 

2 to 6 mo. 
6 mo. to 1 yr. 

2 to 6 mo. 

6 mo. to 1 yr. 

4 wk. 

2 to 4 mo. 
6 mo. to 1 vr. 



April to July 
Alay to Sept. 

June to Oct. 
All year 
All year 

Nov. to July 
June to Sept. 

Oct. to Jan. 

Alay to Dec. 
Best in winter 

]\Iay to Dec. 

Oct. to Mar. 
June to Sept. 
Aug. to Nov. 

Oct. to Mar. 



older ones. They are ready for the market in early autumn, while 
the old birds may be procured at any time. The breast meat of 
guinea fowls is almost as light as that of chicken, but all the meat 
of this bird has a gamy taste, which is absent in the chicken. If this 



12 POULTRY AND GAME §12 

particular flavor is much desired, it may be developed to even a 
greater degree by allowing the bird to hang after killing until the 
meat begins to "turn," that is, become "high." Such meat, however, 
is not usually desirable in the ordinary menu. 

27. Selection of Pheasant, Partridge, and Quail. 

Pheasant, partridge, and quail are usually considered game birds, 
but certain varieties are being extensively domesticated and bred 
for market. Such birds are small and are used more in the nature 
of a delicacy than as a common article of food. 

28. Table of Poultry and Game. — In Table I are given the 

market names of the various kinds of poultry and game birds, as 
well as the corresponding age, the weight, and the season of the year 
when they are most desirable. This table will serve as a guide in 
selecting poultry that is to be used as food. 



COMPOSITION OF POULTRY 

29. The composition of poultry is very similar to that of meats. 
In fact, poultry is composed of protein, fat, water, mineral salts, and 
extractives that do not differ materially from those found in meats. 
The protein, which usually varies from 15 to 20 per cent., is a much 
more constant factor than the fat, which varies from 8 to 40 per 
cent. This variation, of course, makes the total food value high in 
some kinds of poultry and low in others. For instance, in a young 
broiler that has not been fattened, the food value is extremely low ; 
whereas, in a mature well-fattened bird, such as a goose, which 
increases very markedly in fatty tissue after reaching maturity, it is 
extremely high. A factor that detracts considerably from the edible 
portion of poultry is the waste material, or refuse. This consists of 
the bones, cartilage, head, feet, and entrails, or inedible internal 
organs. The greater the proportion of such waste material, the more 
the total nutritive value of the flesh is reduced. It is claimed that 
birds that have light-colored flesh do not become so fat as those 
which have dark flesh. This, of course, makes their nutritive value 
less, because the fat of poultry is what serves to supply a large part 
of the nutrition. There is no particular difference, as is commonly 
supposed, between the red and white meat of poultry. The differ- 
ence in color is due to a difference in the blood supply, but this does 
not affect the composition to any extent. 



§ 12 POULTRY AND GAME 13 



PREPARATION OF POULTRY FOR COOKING 



PREPARATION OF CHICKEX 

30. As has been implied, poultry must be properly prepared 
before it is ready for cooking; likewise, the method of cookery 
determines how it must be prepared. For example, if it is to be 
roasted, it must be drawn ; if it is to be stewed, it must be drawn 
and cut into suitable pieces ; and so on. The various steps that must 
be taken to make poultry suitable for cooking are therefore con- 
sidered here in detail. 

31. Dressing- a Chicken. — Although, as has been shown, the 
housewife does not have to dress the chicken that she is to cook — ■ 
that is, kill and pluck it — there may be times when she will be called 
on to perform this task or at least direct it. A common way of 
killing chicken in the home is simply to grasp it firmly by the legs, 
lay it on a block, and then chop the head off with a sharp hatchet or 
a cleaver. If this plan is followed, the beheaded chicken must be 
held firmly until the blood has drained away and the reflex action 
that sets in has ceased. Otherwise, there is danger of becoming 
splashed with blood. 

32. After a chicken has been killed, the first step in its prepara- 
tion, no matter how it is to be cooked, consists in removing the 
feathers, or plucking it, as this operation is called. Plucking can be 
done dry by simply pulling out the feathers. However, a bird can be 
plucked more readily if it is first immersed in water at the boiling 
point for a few minutes. Such water has a tendency to loosen the 
feathers so that they can be pulled from the skin easily. Unless 
the chicken is to be used at once, though, dry plucking is preferable 
to the other method. Care should be taken not to tear or mar the 
skin in plucking, and the operation is best performed by pulling out 
the feathers a few at a time, with a quick jerk. In a young chicken, 
small feathers, commonly called pin feathers, are apt to remain in 
the skin after plucking. These may be pulled out by pinching each 
with the point of a knife pressed against the thumb and then giving 
a quick jerk. 

33. Whether live poultry is dressed by a local butcher or in the 
home, the length of time it should be kept after killing demands 

wi-C3-n 



14 



POULTRY AND GAME 



§12 



attention. Such poultry should either be cooked before rigor mor- 
tis, or the stiffening of the muscles, has had time to begin, or be 




allowed to remain in a cool place long enough for this to pass off 
and the muscles to become tender again. Naturally, if this soften- 
ing, or ripening, process, as it is sometimes called, goes on too long, 
decomposition will set in, with the usual harmful effects if the meat 
is used as food. 

34. Singeing- a Chicken. — On all chickens except very young 
ones, whether they are home dressed or not, hairs will be found on 

the skin; and, as has been 
mentioned, the older the bird 
the more hair will it have. 
The next step in preparing 
a chicken for cooking, there- 
fore, is to singe it, or burn 
off these hairs. However, 
before singeing, provided the 
head has not been removed, 
cut it off just where the 
neck begins, using a kitchen 
cleaver or a butcher knife, 
as in Fig. 3. To singe a 
dressed chicken, grasp it by 
the head or the neck and the 
feet and then revolve it over 
a gas flame, as shown in 
Fig. 4, or a burning piece of 
paper for a few seconds or just long enough to burn off the hairs 
without scorching the skin. After singeing, wash the skin thor- 




§12 



POULTRY AND GAME 



15 



oughly with a cloth and warm water, as shown in Fig. 5. Then it 
will be ready for drawing and cutting up. 

35. Drawing- a Cliicken. — By drawing a chicken is meant 
the taking out of the entrails and removing all parts that are not 
edible. Although this work 
will be done by some butch- 
ers, the better plan is to do 
it at home, for, as has been 
stated, chicken or any other 
poultry must be cooked ver}^ 
soon after the entrails are 
removed. Chicken that is 
to be roasted is always pre- 
pared in this way, as the 
cavity that remains may be 
filled with stuffing. Draw- 
ing is also necessary when 
chicken is to be cooked in 
any other way, as by stew- 
ing or frying, but in addition 
it must be cut up. The pro- 
cedure in drawing a chicken ^'^- ^ 

is simple, but some practice is required before deftness will result. 

36. In order to draw a chicken, carefully cut a lengthwise slit 





through the skin on the neck, and slip the fingers down around the 
fro/', which is a small sack that holds the food eaten by the chicken. 




Fig 7 





Fig. 9 



§12 



POULTRY AND GAME 



17 




Then pull the crop out, and with it the windpipe, as in Fig. 6, taking 

pains not to tear the skin nor to break the crop. 

Next, remove the tendons, or thick white cords, from the legs, so 

as to improve the meat. These may be easily removed, especially 

from a chicken that is 

freshly killed; that is, 

one in which the flesh 

is still moist. Simply 

cut through the skin, 

just above the foot, as 

in Fig. 7, being careful 

not to cut the tendons 

that lie just beneath the 

skin; then slip a skewer 

or some other small, 

dull implement, as a 

fork, under the tendons, 

pull down toward the 

foot until they loosen at ^^°- ^° 

the second joint, and pull them out. This operation is clearly shown 

in Fig. 8. With the tendons removed, the feet may be cut oft'. To 

do this, cut through the skin where the two bones join, as shown in 

Fig. 9. As the joint 
separates, cut through 
the remaining tendons 
and skin on the back of 
the legs. 

37. Proceed, next, 
to cut a crosswise slit 
through the skin between 
the legs at a point 
above the vent, as in 
Fig. 10, so that the en- 
P^^ J J trails may be removed. 

This slit should be just 
large enough to admit the hand and no larger. Insert the fingers 
of one hand in this slit and gently move them around the mass of the 
internal organs, keeping them close to the framework of the bird. 
This will loosen the entrails at the points where they are attached 




18 



POULTRY AND GAME 



§12 



to the body. Then, inserting 
mass at the top, near the neck 




Fig. 12 



the entrails are removed, pour 
it well several times, and pour 



the hand, slip the fingers around the 

, and with one pull remove the entire 
internal contents, as 
Fig. 11 shows. The 
lungs, or lights, as they 
are sometimes called, do 
not come out with this 
mass. They will be 
found covered with a 
membrane and tightly 
fastened inside the 
breast bone, and must 
be removed by pulling 
them out with the tips 
of the fingers. After 

clean cold water into the cavity, rinse 

the water out. 



38. Among the contents drawn from the chicken will be found 
the heart, the liver, and the gizzard. These are called the giblets. 
They are the only edible internal organs, and must be separated 
from the rest. To do this, squeeze the blood from the heart, and 
then cut the large vessels ofif close to the top of it. Then cut the 
liver away. In handling this part of the giblets extreme care must 
be taken, for tightly 
attached to it, as Fig. 12 
shows, is the gall blad- 
der, which is a tiny sack 
filled with green fluid, 
called bile. If this sack 
breaks, anything that its 
contents touches will be- 
come very bitter and 
therefore unfit to eat. 
The gall bag should be 
cut out of the liver 
above the place where it 
is attached, so as to be 

certain that it does not break nor lose any of the bile. Next, remove 
the gizzard, which consists of a fleshy part surrounding a sack con- 




§12 



POULTRY AND GA^IE 



19 



taining partly digested food eaten by the chicken. First trim off 
any surplus fat, and 
carefully cut through 
the fleshy part just to the 
surface of the inside 
sack. Then pull the out- 
side fleshy part away 
from the sack without 
breaking it, as in Fig. 13. 
an operation that can be 
done if the work is per- 
formed carefully. After 
removing the giblets 
and preparing them as 
explained, wash them 
well, so that they may Pj^ j4 

be used with the rest of 

the chicken. As a final step, cut out the oil sack, which lies just 
above the tail, proceeding in the manner illustrated in Fig. 14. 




39. Cutting- Up a Chicken. — When chicken that has been 
drawn is to be fried, stewed, fricasseed, or cooked in some similar 
way, it must be cut into suitable pieces. In order to do this properly, 
it is necessary to learn to locate the joints and to be able to cut 

squarely between the 
two bones where they 
are attached to each 
other. To sever the legs 
from the body of the 
chicken, first cut through 
the skin underneath each 
leg where it is attached 
to the body, as in Fig. 1 5, 
bend the leg back far 
enough to break the 
joint, and then cut 
through it, severing the 
entire leg in one piece. 
When the legs are cut 
off, cut each one apart at the joint between the thigh and the lower 





Fig. 16 






Fig. 21 



22 



POULTRY AND GAME 



part, as in Fig. 16, making two pieces. To sever the wings from 
the body, cut through the skin where the wing is attached, as in 

Fig. 17, and bend it back 
until the joint breaks. 
Then cut it off where the 
ends of the bones are 
attached to the joint. 
When both legs and both 
wings are removed, pro- 
ceed to cut the body- 
apart. As shown in 
P^ig. 18, place the chick- 
en, neck down, on a 
table, and cut down 
through the ribs parallel 
with the breast and the 
back, until the knife 
strikes a hard bone that it cannot cut. Then firmly grasp the breast 
with one hand and the back with the other and break the joints that 
attach these parts by pulling the back and the breast away from each 
other, as in Fig. 19. Cut through the joints, as in Fig. 20, so that 
the back, ribs, and neck will be in one piece and the breast in another. 




Fig. 22 




If desired, the breast may be divided into two pieces by cutting it 
in the manner shown in Fig. 21 ; also, as the back will break at the 
end of the ribs, it may be cut into two pieces there. Finally, cut 
the neck from the top piece of the back, as in Fig. 22. 



§ 12 POULTRY AND GAME 23 

The pieces of chicken thus procured may be rinsed clean with 
cold water, but they should never be allowed to stand in water, 
because this will draw out some of the extractives, or flavoring 
material, soluble albumin, and mineral salts. 

40. Preparing Chicken Feet. — Many persons consider that 
chicken feet are not worth while for food. This, however, is a 
mistaken idea, for they will add to the flavor of soup stock or they 
may be cooked with the giblets to make stock for gravy. Chicken 
feet do not contain much meat, but what little there is has an excel- 
lent flavor and should be removed for use when creamed chicken 
or any dish made with left-over chicken is to be cooked. 

To prepare chicken feet for use as food, scrub the feet well and 
pour boiling water over them. After a minute or two, remove them 
from the water and rub them with a clean cloth to peel off the 
scaly skin, as shown in Fig. 23. Finally remove the nails by bend- 
ing them back. 

41. Utilizing- the Wing Tips. — The last joint, or tip, of 
chicken wings has no value as food, but, like the feet, it will help 
to add flavor to any stock that is made. This small piece of wing 
may be removed and then cooked with the feet and giblets. 



PREPARATION OF POl XTRY OTHER THAN CHICKEN 

42. Preparation of Turkey. — The preparation of a plucked 
turkey for cooking is almost identically the same as that of a plucked 
chicken. Begin the preparation by singeing it ; that is, hold it over 
a flame and turn it so that all the hairs on the skin will be burned 
off. Then look the skin over carefully, remove any pin feathers 
that may not have been removed in plucking, and wash it thoroughly. 
Next, cut off the head, leaving as much of the neck as possible. 
Draw the tendons from the legs as in preparing chicken ; the ease 
with which this can be done will depend greatly on the length of 
time the turkey has been killed. Then cut off the legs at the first 
joint above the foot. 

Having prepared the external part of the turkey, proceed to draw 
it. First, remove the crop by cutting a slit lengthwise in the neck 
over the crop, catching it with the fingers, and pulling it out. Next, 
cut a slit between the legs, below the breast bone, and draw out the 
internal organs. Clean and retain the giblets. Remove the lungs, 



24 POULTRY AND GAME § 12 

wash out the cavity in the turkey, and cut off the oil bag on the back, 
just above the tail. 

Turkey prepared in this way is ready to stuff and roast. It is 
never cut into pieces in the ordinary household until it has been 
cooked and is ready to serve. Directions for carving are therefore 
given later. 

J^3. Preparation of Duck and Goose. — The preparation of 
duck and goose for cooking does not differ materially from that of 
turkey or chicken. Like turkey, duck or goose is generally roasted 
and not cut up until it is ready to serve. It will be well to note that 
young ducks are covered with small feathers, or down, which is very 
difficult to remove. However, the down may be removed by pulling 
it out with a small knife pressed against the thumb. When the 
down is removed, proceed with the preparation. Singe, wash, 
remove the head and feet, draw, wash the inside of the bird, and 
remove the oil sack. Goose may be prepared for cooking in the 
same way. 

44. Preparation of Small Birds. — Squabs, partridge, 
pheasant, and other small birds are usually cooked by broiling. To 
prepare such a bird for cooking, singe, remove any small feathers 
that may remain, wash, remove the head and feet, and draw, follow- 
ing the directions given for drawing chicken. When it is thus 
cleaned, lay the bird open. To do this, begin at the neck and cut 
down the back along the spine. If desired, however, the bird may 
be cut down the back before drawing and the entrails removed 
through the cut down the back. Finally, wash the inside and wipe 
it dry, when the bird will be ready for broiling. 



COOKING OF POULTRY 



COOKERY METHODS 

45. With poultry, as in the case of meats of any kind, it is the 
composition that determines the method of cookery ; and, as the struc- 
ture and composition of the tissue of poultry do not differ materially 
from those of meats, the application of the various cooking methods 
is practically the same. Young and tender birds that have com.- 
paratively little flesh, such as young chickens, squabs, and guinea 



12 



POULTRY AND GAME 



25 



fowl, are usually prepared by such rapid methods as frying and 
broiling. Medium-sized poultry, including chickens, turkeys, guinea 
fowl, ducks, and geese, require more cooking, and this, of course, 
must be done at a lower temperature ; therefore, such poultry is 
generally roasted. Old poultry, particularly old chicken, or fowl, 
which is apt to be tough, requires still more cooking, and for this 
reason is stewed, braized, or fricasseed. The recipes for the cook- 
ing of various kinds of poultry here given will serve to make clear 
the cookery method to employ, as well as how to carry it out to 
advantasfe. 



PREPARATION BY BROIMIVG 

46. The method of broiling in the case of poultry of all kinds 
does not differ in any way from the same method applied to cuts of 
meat. Since broiling is a 
rapid method of cookery 
and heat is applied at a high 
temperature, it is necessary 
that the poultry chosen for 
broiling be young and ten- 
der and have a compara- 
tively small amount of 
meat on the bones. 

Broiled poultry is not an 
economical dish, neither is 
it one in which the greatest 
possible amount of flavor is 
obtained, since, as in the 
case of the meat of animals 
used for food, the flavor 
develops with the age of 
the birds. However, 
broiled poultry has value in Fig- -^ 

the diet of invalids and persons with poor appetite and digestion, 
for if it is properly done it is appetizing and easily digested. 

47. Broiled Poultry. — Poultry that is to be broiled must first 
be dressed, drawn, and cleaned. Then, as has been mentioned 
for the preparation of small birds, lay the bird open by cutting 
down along the spine, beginning at the neck, as shown in Fig. 24. 




26 



POULTRY AND GAME 



§12 




Fig. 23 



This will permit the bird to be spread apart, as in Fig. 25. When 
it is thus made ready, washed, and wiped dry, heat the broiler and 

grease it. Then place 

I >m ~I~ ^^H the bird on the broiler 

^ --^^« m\ ^^^H ""^ ^'^^ manner shown in 

B V\ Jl irl^B Fig. 26 and expose it 

■ giStt ^ «|^i /l^i^H ^^ severe heat. Sear 

I |B^- 'l4k ^ ^^'^fep^^B quickly on one side, and 

' ^' ' other side. Then reduce 

the heat to a lower tem- 
perature and broil more 
slowly, turning often. 
To prevent burning, the 
parts that stand up close 
to the flame may be 
covered with strips of 
bacon fastened on with skewers ; also, to get the best results, the 
side of the bird on which the flesh is thick should be exposed to 

the heat for a greater 

length of time than the 
other side. If there is 
any danger of the high 
places burning in the 
broiler, the bird may be 
removed and the cook- 
ing continued in a hot 
oven. Broiled poultry 
should be well done 
when served. This ^,^__ ^^ 

means, then, particularly 

in the case of chickens, that the broiling process should be carried 
on for about 20 minutes. When the bird is properly cooked, remove 
it from the broiler, place it on a hot platter, dot it with butter, 
sprinkle with salt and pepper, garnish, and serve. 




§ 12 POULTRY AND GAME 27 



PREPARATION BY FRYING 

48. As has been mentioned, birds slightly older and larger than 
those used for broiling should be fried, because frying is a slower 
method and gives the flesh a more thorough cooking. However, 
most of the dishes commonly known as fried poultry are not fried, 
but sauted in shallow fat. The same principles employed in sauteing 
any food are applied in the cooking of poultry by this method ; that 
is, the surface is seared as quickly as possible and the cooking is 
finished at a lower temperature. Often in this cooking process, the 
pieces to be sauted are dipped into batter or rolled in flour to assist 
in keeping the juices in the meat. 

49. Fried Chicken. — To many persons, fried chicken — or, 
rather, sauted chicken, as it should be called — is very appetizing. 
Chicken may be fried whole, but usually it is cut up, and when this 
is done it serves to better advantage. Likewise, the method of 
preparation is one that adds flavor to young chicken, which would be 
somewhat flavorless if prepared in almost any other way. 

Frying is not a difficult cookery process. To prepare chickens, 
which should be young ones, for this method of preparation, draw, 
clean, and cut them up in the manner previously explained. When 
they are ready, wash the pieces and roll them in a pan of flour, 
covering the entire surface of each piece. Then, in a frying pan, 
melt fat, which may be chicken fat, bacon fat, part butter, lard, or 
any other frying fat that will give an agreeable flavor. When the 
fat is thoroughly hot, place in it the pieces of floured chicken and 
sprinkle them with salt and pepper. As soon as the pieces have 
browned on one side, turn them over and brown on the other side. 
Then reduce the heat, cover the frying pan with a tight-fitting lid, 
and continue to fry more" slowly. If, after 25 or 30 minutes, the 
meat can be easily pierced with a fork, it is ready to serve ; if this 
cannot be done, add a small quantity of hot water, replace the 
cover, and simmer until the meat can be pierced readily. To serve 
fried chicken, place the pieces on a platter and garnish the dish with 
parsley so as to add to its appearance. 

50. Gravy for Fried Chicken. — If desired, brown gravy 
may be made and served with fried chicken. After the chicken has 
been removed from the frying pan, provided an excessive amount of 
fat remains, pour off some of it. Sprinkle the fat that remains with 



28 POULTRY AND GAME § 12 

dry flour, 1 tablespoonful to each cupful of liquid that is to be used, 
which may be milk, cream, water, or any mixture of the three. Stir 
the flour into the hot fat. Heat the liquid and add this hot liquid 
to the fat and flour in the frying pan. Stir rapidly so that no lumps 
will form, and, if necessary, season with more salt and pepper to 
suit the taste. 

Gravy may also be made in this manner: Stir cold liquid slowly 
into the flour in the proportion of 1 tablespoonful of flour to 1 cup- 
ful of liquid, which may be milk, cream, water, or any mixture of 
the three. Add the cold liquid and flour to the frying pan contain- 
ing a small amount of fat in which the chicken was fried. Stir 
rapidly until the gravy has thickened and there are no lumps. 

Very often the giblets, that is, the liver, heart, and gizzard of 
chicken, are used in making gravy. For example, the giblets may 
be cooked in water until they are tender and then sauted in butter 
to serve, and when this is done the water in which they were cooked 
may be used for making gravy. Again, if it is not desired to eat 
them in this way, they may be chopped fine and added to gravy made 
from the fat that remains from frying. 

51. Maryland Fried. Chicken. — Maryland fried chicken is 
a popular dish with many persons. As a rule, corn fritters are used 
as a garnish and served with the chicken, and strips of crisp bacon 
are placed over the top of it. Often, too, potato croquettes are 
served on the same clatter, a combination that makes almost an 
entire meal. 

To prepare Maryland fried chicken, draw, clean, and cut up young 
chickens. Then wash the pieces and dry them with a soft cloth. 
Sprinkle the pieces with salt and pepper, and dip each into fine 
cracker crumbs or corn meal, then into beaten egg, and again into 
the crumbs or the corn meal. Next, melt in a frying pan chicken or 
bacon fat, part butter, lard, or any other fat for frying. When it is 
hot, place the pieces of chicken in it. Fry them until they are brown 
on one side ; then turn and brown them on the other side. Lower 
the temperature and continue to fry slowly until the meat may be 
easily pierced with a fork. When the chicken is done, pour 2 cup- 
fuls of white sauce on a hot platter and place the chicken in it. Then 
garnish and serve. 

52. Fried Chicken With Paprika Sauce. — Chickens that 
are a trifle older than those used for plain fried chicken may be 



12 



POULTRY AND GAIVIE 



20 



prepared to make what is known as fried chicken with paprika 
sauce. If in preparing this dish the chicken does not appear to be 
tender after frying, it may be made so by simmering it in the sauce. 
To prepare this chicken dish, which is tempting to many, draw, 
clean, and cut up a chicken as for frying. Then melt fat in a 
frying pan, place the pieces in the hot fat, sprinkle them with salt 
and pepper, and brown on both sides quickly. When both sides are 
brown, continue to fry the pieces until they are tender. Then 
sprinkle all with 2 level tablespoon fuls of flour, add 2 cupfuls of 
milk or thin cream, and allow this to thicken. Then sprinkle with 
paprika until the sauce is pink. Let the chicken simmer slowly until 
the sauce penetrates the meat a little. Serve on a platter with a 
garnish. 



PREPARATION BY ROASTING 

53. Roasting is the cookery process that is commonly employed 
for preparing chickens that are of good size, as well as turkeys, 
ducks, and geese. It is also followed at times for cooking guinea 
fowl, partridges, pheasants, and similar small birds. As a rule, 

birds prepared in this 

way are filled with stuff- 
ing, which may be made 
in so many ways that 
roasted stufifed poultry 
makes a delightful change 
in the regular routine 
of meals. 



54. Roast Cliiclv- 
en.' — Roasting is the 
best method to employ ^'^- -'' 

for the preparation of old chicken unless, of course, it is extremely 
' old and tough. Then stewing is about the only method that is satis- 
factory. Chicken for roasting should weigh no less than 3 pounds. 
Chicken prepared according to the following directions makes a dish 
that is very appetizing. 

To prepare chicken for roasting, clean and draw it in the manner 
previously given. When it is made clean, rub salt and pepper on the 
inside of the cavity, and stuff the cavity of the chicken, as shown in 
Fig. 27, with any desirable stuffing. Directions for preparing stuff- 

VV'I— C3— 12 




30 



POULTRY AND GAME 



§12 




ing are given later. Also, fill with stuf^ng the space from which 
the crop was removed, inserting it through the slit in the neck. 

Thread a large darning 
needle with white cord 
and sew up the slit in 
the neck, as well as the 
one between the legs, as 
in Fig. 28, so that the 
stuffing will not fall out. 
Also, force the neck in- 
side of the skin, and tie 
the skin with a piece of 
string, as in Fig. 29. 
Then, as Fig. 29 also 
shows, truss the chicken 
by forcing the tip of each 
wing back of the first wing joint, making a triangle; also, tie the 
ends of the legs together and pull them down, tying them fast to 
the tail, as in Fig. 30. Trussing in this manner will give the chicken 
a much better appearance for serving than if it were not so fastened ; 
but, of course, before it is placed on the table, the strings must be 
cut and removed. After stuffing and trussing, put the chicken on 
its back in a roasting pan, sprinkle it with flour, and place it in a 
very hot oven. Sear the skin quickly. Then reduce the temperature 
slightly and pour a cup- 
ful of water into the 
resisting pan. Baste the 
chicken every 10 or 15 
minutes with this water, 
until it is well browned 
and the breast and legs 
may be easily pierced 
with a fork. Remove 
to a platter and serve. 
If gravy is desired, it 
may be made in the 
roasting pan in the same ^^°- ^^ 

way as for fried chicken. The giblets may be cut into pieces and 
added or they may be left out and served after first cooking and then 
browning- them. 




POULTRY AND GAME 



31 



55. Roast Turkey. — In America, roast turkey is usually con- 
sidered as a holiday dish, being served most frequently in the homes 
on Thanksgiving day. However, at times when the price is moder- 
ate, it is not an extravagance to serve roast turkey for other occa- 
sions. Roasting is practically the only way in which turkey is 
prepared in the usual household, and it is by far the best method 
of preparation. Occasionally, however, a very tough turkey is 
steamed before roasting in order to make it sufficiently tender. 

The preparation of roast turkey does not differ materially from 
the method given for the preparation of roast chicken. After the 
turkey is cleaned, drawn, and prepared according to the directions 
previously given, rub the inside of the cavity with salt and pepper. 
Then stuff with any desirable stuffing, filling the cavity and also the 
space under the skin of 
the neck where the crop 
was removed. Then sew 
up the opening, draw the 
skin over the neck and tie 
it, and truss the turkey 
by forcing the tip of each 
wing back of the first 
wing joint in a triangular 
shape and tying both ends 
of the legs to the tail. 
When thus made ready, 
place the turkey in the p^^, 3q 

roasting pan so that the 

back rests on the pan and the legs are on top. Then dredge with 
flour, sprinkle with salt and pepper, and place in a hot oven. 
When its surface is well browned, reduce the heat and baste every 
1 15 minutes until the turkey is cooked. This will usually require 
about 3 hours, depending, of course, on the size of the bird. For 
basting, melt 4 tablespoonfuls of butter or bacon fat in ^ cupful 
of boiling water. Pour this into the roasting pan. Add water 
when this evaporates, and keep a sufficient amount for basting. 
Turn the turkey several times during the roasting, so that the 
sides and back, as well as the breast, will be browned. W^hen the 
turkey can be easily pierced with a fork, remove it from the roast- 
ing pan, cut the strings and pull them out, place on a platter, garnish, 
and serve. Gravy to be served with roast turkey may be made in 




32 POULTRY AND GAME § 12 

the manner mentioned for making gravy to be served with fried 
chicken. 

56. Roast Duck.^ — While young duck is often broiled, the 
usual method of preparing this kind of poultry is by roasting ; in 
fact, roasting is an excellent way in which to cook duck that is 
between the broiling age and full maturity. 

57. Duck is roasted in practically the same way as chicken or 
turkey. In the case of a young duck, or spring duck, however, 
stuffing is not used. After it is drawn and cleaned, truss it by fold- 
ing back the wings and tying the ends of the legs to the tail, so as 
to give it a good appearance when served. Season with salt and 
pepper and dredge with flour, and, over the breast, to prevent it 
from burning, place strips of bacon or salt pork. When thus made 
ready, put the duck in a roasting pan, pour in | cupful of water, and 
cook it in a hot oven until it is very tender, basting it about every 
15 minutes during the roasting. About 15 minutes before the roast- 
ing is done, remove the strips of bacon or pork, so as to permit 
the breast underneath them to brown. Serve on a platter with a 
garnish. Make gravy if desired. 

58. In the case of an old duck, proceed as for roasting chicken 
or turkey ; that is, draw, clean, stuff, and truss it. In addition, place 
strips of bacon or salt pork over its breast. Place it in a roasting 
pan, pour | cupful of water into the pan, and put it in a hot oven. 
During the roasting baste the duck every 15 minutes; also, as in 
roasting a young duck, remove the bacon or salt pork in plenty of 
time to permit the part underneath to brown. When the surface 
is well browned and the meat may be easily pierced with a fork, 
place the duck on a platter, remove the strings used to sew it up, 
garnish, and serve. IMake gravy if desired. 

59. Roast Goose. — Specific directions for roasting goose are 
not given, because the methods differ in no way from those already 
given for roasting duck. Very young goose, or green goose, is 
usually roasted without being stuffed, just as young duck. Older 
goose, however, is stuffed, trussed, and roasted just as old duck. 
A very old goose may be placed in a roasting pan and steamed until 
it is partly tender before roasting. Apples in some form or other 
are commonly served with goose. For example, rings of fried apple 



§ 12 POULTRY AND GAME 33 

may be used as a garnish, or apple sauce or stewed or baked apples 
may be served as an accompaniment. Make gravy if desired. 

60. Roast Small Birds. — Such small birds as guinea fowl, 
partridge, pheasant, quail, etc. may be roasted if desired, but on 
account of being so small they are seldom filled with stuffing. To 
roast such poultry, first clean, draw, and truss them. Then lard 
them with strips of bacon or salt pork, and place in a roasting pan 
in a very hot oven. During the roasting, turn them so as to brown 
all sides; also, baste every 15 minutes during the roasting with the 
water that has been poured into the roasting pan. Continue the 
roasting until the flesh is very soft and the joints can be easily pulled 
apart. Serve with a garnish. Make gravy if desired. 

61. stuffing- for Roast Poultry. — As has been mentioned, 
stuffing, or dressing, of some kind is generally used when poultry 
is roasted. Therefore, so that the housewife may be prepared to 
vary the stuffing she uses from time to time, recipes for several 
kinds are here given. Very often, instead of using the giblets for 
gravy, they are cooked in water and then chopped and added to the 
stuffing. Giblets are not included in the recipes here given, but they 
may be added if desired. The quantities stated in these recipes are 
usually sufficient for a bird of average size ; however, for a smaller 
or a larger bird the ingredients may be decreased or increased 
accordingly. 

Bread Stuffing 
4 c. dry bread crumbs 1 tsp. celery salt, or | tsp. 

I c. butter celery seed 

1 small onion | tsp. powdered sage 

1 beaten egg (if desired) 

1 tsp. salt i tsp. pepper 

Pour a sufficient amount of hot water over the bread crumbs to 
moisten them well. Melt the butter and allow it to brown slightly. 
Add the onion, chopped fine, to the butter and pour this over the 
bread crumbs. Add the beaten egg, salt, celery salt, and other 
seasonings, mix thoroughly, and stuff into the bird. 
Cracker Stuffing 

3 c. cracker crumbs i tsp. salt 

1 small onion (if desired) I tsp. powdered sage (if desired) 

-J c. butter -| tsp. pepper 

Moisten the cracker crumbs with hot milk or water until they are 
quite soft. Brown the chopped onion with the butter and pour 



34 POULTRY AND GAME § 12 

over the crackers. Add the seasonings, mix thoroughly, and stuff 

into the bird. 

Oyster Stuffing 
3 c. dry bread crumbs -} tsp. pepper 

5 c. butter 1 c. oysters 

1 tsp. salt ^ c. chopped celery 

Moisten the bread crumbs with a sufficient amount of hot water 
to make them quite soft. Brown the butter slightly and add it, with 
the seasonings, to the bread. Mix with this the oysters and chopped 
celery. Stuff into the bird. 

Chestnut Stuffing 
1 pt. blanched chestnuts 1 tsp. salt 

1 pt. bread crumbs ^ tsp. pepper 

i c. butter 2 Tb. chopped parsley 

Blanch the chestnuts in boiling water to remove the dark skin 
that covers them. Cook them until they are quite soft, and then 
chop them or mash them. Moisten the bread crumbs with hot water 
and add the chestnuts. Brown the butter slightly and pour it over 
the mixture. Add the seasonings and chopped parsley and stuff. 

Green-Pepper Stuffing 
1 qt. dried bread crumbs ^ c. finely chopped green pepper 

1 c. stewed tomatoes 2 Tb. chopped parsley 
^ c. melted butter 1 tsp. salt 

2 Tb. bacon fat I tsp. pepper 

1 small onion, chopped 

Moisten the bread crumbs with the stewed tomatoes and add a 
sufficient amount of hot water to make the crumbs quite soft. Melt 
the butter and bacon fat, add the onion, green pepper, and the 
seasonings, and pour over the crumbs. Mix thoroughly and stuff. 

Rice Stuffing 

2 c. steamed rice 1 tsp. salt 

2 c. bread crumbs | tsp. pepper 

1 c. stewed tomatoes ^ c. butter 

^ c. chopped pimiento 4 small strips bacon, diced and 

2 Tb. chopped parsley fried brown 
1 small onion, chopped 

Mix the steamed rice with the bread crumbs. Add the stewed 
tomatoes, pimiento, chopped parsley, chopped onion, salt, pepper, 
melted butter, bacon and bacon fat, and a sufficient amount of hot 
water to moisten the whole well. Mix thoroughly and stuff. 



§12 POULTRY AND GAME 35 

Peanut Stuffing for Roast Duck 
1 pt. cracker crumbs i tsp. pepper 

1 c. shelled peanuts, finely Dash of Cayenne pepper 

chopped T c. butter 

i tsp. salt Hot milk 

Mix the crumbs and the chopped peanuts. Add the salt, pepper, 
and Cayenne pepper, and pour over them the melted butter and a 
sufficient amount of hot milk to soften the whole. Stuff into the 
duck. 

Liver Stuffing for Roast Duck 
1 duck liver i tsp. salt 

^ c. butter i tsp. pepper 

1 small onion, chopped 1 Tb. chopped parsley 

2 c. dry bread crumbs 1 egg 

Chop the liver and saute in the butter to which has been added 
the chopped onion. Pour over the bread crumbs. Then add the 
salt, pepper, finely chopped parsley, and the beaten egg. Pour over 
all a sufficient amount of water to moisten well. Stuff into the duck. 



BONED CHICKEN 

62. To offer variety in the serving of chicken, as well as to 
present an easily carved bird, the process known as boning is often 
resorted to. Boning, as will be readily understood, consists in 
removing the flesh from the bones before the bird is cooked. Boned 
chicken may be prepared by roasting or broiling. In either case, 
the cookery process is the same as that already given for poultry 
that is not boned. If it is to be roasted, the cavity that results from 
the removal of the bones and internal organs should be filled with 
stuffing or forcemeat, so that the bird will appear as if nothing had 
been removed. If it is to be broiled, stuffing is not necessary. 
Cooked boned chicken may be served either hot or cold. Of course, 
other kinds of poultry may be boned if desired, and if the directions 
here given for boning chicken are thoroughly learned no difficulty 
will be encountered in performing this operation on any kind. 
Boning is not a wasteful process as might be supposed, because 
after the flesh is removed from the bones, they may be used in the 
making of soup. 

63. Before proceeding to bone a chicken, singe it, pull out the 
pin feathers, cut off the head, remove the tendons from the legs, 





Fig. 32 




Fig. 33 






Fig. 36 




§1-^ 



POULTRY AND GAME 



39 




Fig. 3S 



and take out the crop through the neck. The bird may be drawn or 
not before boning it, but in any event care must be taken not to 
break any part of the 
skin. With these mat- 
ters attended to, wash 
the skin well and wipe 
it carefully. First, cut 
off the legs at the first 
joint, and, with the point 
of a sharp knife, as 
shown in Fig. 31, loosen 
the skin and muscles 
just above the joint by 
cutting around the bone. 
Cut the neck off close to 
the body, as in Fig. 32. 
Then, starting at the 
neck, cut the skin clear down the back to the tail, as in Fig. 33. 
Begin on one side, and scrape the flesh, with the skin attached to it, 
from the back bone, as in Fig. 34. When the shoulder blade is 
reached, push the flesh from it with the fingers, as in Fig. 35, until 
the wing joint is reached. Disjoint the wing where it is attached 
to the body, as in Fig. 36, and loosen the skin from the wing bone 
down to the second joint. Disjoint the bone here and remove it up 
to this place, as Fig. 37 illustrates. The remaining bone is left in 

the tip of the wing to 
give it shape. When 
the bone from one wing 
is removed, turn the 
chicken around and re- 
move the bone from the 
other wing. Next, start 
at the back, separating 
the flesh from the ribs, 
as in Fig. 38, taking care 
not to penetrate into the 
side cavity of the chick- 
en, provided it has not 
been drawn. Push the flesh down to the thigh, as in Fig. 39, dis- 
joint the bone here, and remove it down to the second joint, as in 






/ \^^#^ 


. z^ 






Fig. 45 



42 POULTRY AND GAME § 12 

Fig. 40. Disjoint the bone at the other joint, and remove the skin 
and meat from the bone by turning them inside out, as in Fig. 41. 
If the bone has been properly loosened at the first joint of the leg, 
there will be no trouble in slipping it out. When this is done, turn 
the meat and skin back again, so that they will be right side out. 
Then proceed in the same way with the other leg. Next, free the 
flesh from the collar bone down to the breast bone on both sides, 
proceeding as in Fig. 42. When the ridge of the breast bone is 
reached, care must be taken not to break the skin that lies very 
close to the bone. The fingers .should be used to separate the flesh 
at this place. W^hen the sides and front have been thus taken care 
of, free the skin and the flesh from the bones over the rump. After 
this is done, the skeleton and internal organs of the undrawn bird 
may be removed, leaving the flesh intact. The skeleton of a chicken 
will appear as in Fig. 43. 

If the boned chicken is to be roasted, the entire chicken, including 
the spaces from which the wing and leg bones were removed, may 
be filled with highly seasoned stuffing. When this is done, shape 
the chicken as much as possible to resemble its original shape and 
sew up the back. The chicken will then be ready to roast. If 
the boned chicken is to be broiled, shape it on the broiler as shown 
in Fig. 44 and broil. When broiled, boned chicken should appear as 
in Fig. 45. 

PREPARATIOX BY STEWING AND OTHER COOKING METHODS 

64. Chicken Stew With Dumplings or Noodles. — Per- 
haps the most common way of preparing chicken is to stew it. 
When chicken is so cooked, such an addition as dumplings or noodles 
is generally made because of the excellent food combination that 
results. For stewing, an old chicken with a great deal of flavor 
should be used in preference to a young one, which will have less 
flavor. 

In order to prepare chicken by stewing, clean, draw, and cut up 
the bird according to directions previously given. Place the pieces 
in a large kettle and cover them well with boiling water. Bring all 
quickly to the boiling point and add 2 teaspoonfuls of salt. Then 
remove the scum, lower the temperature, and continue to cook at 
the simmering point. Keep the pieces well covered with water ; 
also, keep the stew pot covered during the cooking. When the 
chicken has become tender enough to permit the pieces to be easily 



§ 12 POULTRY AND GAME 43 

pierced with a fork, remove them to a deep platter or a vegetahle 
dish. DumpHngs or noodles may be cooked in the chicken broth, 
as the water in which the chicken was stewed is called, or they may 
be boiled or steamed separately. If they are cooked separately, 
thicken the broth with flour and serve it over the chicken with the 
noodles or dumplings. 

65. Fricassee of Chicken. — For chicken that is tough, fricas- 
seeing is an excellent cooking method to employ. Indeed, since it 
is a long method of cookery, a rather old, comparatively tough fowl 
lends itself best to fricasseeing. Fricassee of chicken also is a dish 
that requires a great deal of flavor to be drawn from the meat, and 
this, of course, cannot be done if a young chicken is used. 

To prepare fricassee of chicken, clean and cut the bird into pieces 
according to the directions previously given. Put these into a 
saucepan, cover with boiling water, add 2 teaspoonfuls of salt, bring 
to the boiling point quickly, skim, and reduce the temperature so 
that the meat will simmer slowly until it is tender. Next, remove 
the pieces of chicken from the water in which they were cooked, roll 
them in flour, and saute them in butter or chicken fat until they are 
nicely browned. If more than 2 or 2 J cupfuls of broth remains, boil 
it until the quantity is reduced to this amount. Then moisten 2 or 
3 tablespoonfuls of flour with a little cold water, add this to the 
stock, and cook until it thickens. If desired, the broth may be 
reduced more and thin cream may be added to make up the necessary 
quantity. Arrange the pieces of chicken on a deep platter, pour the 
sauce over them, season with salt and pepper if necessary, and 
serve. To enhance the appearance of this dish, the platter may be 
garnished with small three-cornered pieces of toast, tiny carrots, or 
carrots and green peas. 

66. Chicken Pie. — A good change from the usual ways of 
serving chicken may be brought about by means of chicken pie. 
Such a dish is simple to prepare, and for it may be used young or 
old chicken. 

To prepare chicken pie, dress, clean, and cut up a chicken in the 
usual manner. Put it into a saucepan, add a small onion and a sprig 
of parsley, cover with boiling water, and cook slowly until the meat 
is tender. When the meat is cooked, add 2 teaspoonfuls of salt and 
^ teaspoonful of pepper, and when it is perfectly tender remove it 
from the stock. Thicken the stock with 1 tablespoonful of flour to 



U POULTRY AND GAME § 12 

each cupful of liquid. Next, arrange the chicken in a baking dish. 
It may be left on the bones or cut into large pieces and the bones 
removed. To it add small carrots and onions that have been pre- 
viously cooked until tender and pour the thickened stock over all. 
Cover this with baking-powder biscuit dough made according to the 
directions given in Hot Breads and rolled ^ inch thick. Make some 
holes through the dough with the point of a sharp knife to let the 
steam escape, and bake in a moderate oven vmtil the dough is well 
risen and a brown crust is formed. Then remove from the oven 
and serve. 

67. Chicken Curry. — Chicken combined with rice is usually 
an agreeable food combination, but when flavored with curry 
powder, as in the recipe here given, it is a highly flavored dish that 
appeals to the taste of many persons. 

Chicken Curry 

1 3-lb. chicken 1 Tb. curry powder 

2 Tb. butter 2 tsp. salt 

2 onions 2 c. steamed rice 

Clean, dress, and cut up the chicken as for stewing. Put the 
butter in a hot frying pan, add, the onions, sliced thin, then the 
pieces of chicken, and cook for 10 minutes. Parboil the liver, giz- 
zard, and heart, cut them into pieces and add them to the chicken 
in the frying pan. Sprinkle the curry powder and the salt over the 
whole. Add boiling water or the stock in which the giblets were 
cooked, and simmer until the chicken is tender. Remove the meat 
from the frying pan and place it on a deep platter. Surround it 
with a border of steamed rice. Thicken the stock in the frying pan 
slightly with flour and pour the gravy over the chicken. Serve hot. 

68. Chicken en Casserole. — Food prepared in casseroles 
always seems to meet with the approval of even the most discrimi- 
nating persons ; and chicken prepared in this way with vegetables 
is no exception to the rule. For such a dish should be selected a 
chicken of medium size that is neither very old nor very young. 
Any flavor that the bird contains is retained, so a strong flavor is 
not desirable. 

In preparing chicken en casserole, first clean, dress, and cut it up 
in the manner directed for stewed chicken. Place the pieces in a 
casserole dish, together with 1 cupful of small carrots or larger 
carrots cut into strips. Fry a finely chopped onion with several 



§12 POULTRY AND GAME 45 

strips of bacon, and cut these more finely while frying until the 
whole is well browned. Then add them to the meat in the casserole 
dish. Also, add 1 cupful of potato balls or 1 cupful of diced pota- 
toes. Season well with salt and pepper, add 2 tablespoonfuls of flour, 
and over the whole pour sufficient hot water to cover. Cover the 
casserole dish, place it in a moderate oven, and cook slowly until the 
chicken is tender. Serve from the dish. 

69. Jellied Chicken. — The housewife who desires to serve 
an unusual chicken dish will find that there is much in favor of 
jellied chicken. Aside from its food value, jellied chicken has 
merit in that it appeals to the eye, especially if the mold used in its 
preparation has a pleasing shape. 

Jellied Chicken 

1 3- or 4-lb. chicken 1 hard-cooked egg 

2 tsp. salt 1 pimiento 

Several slices of onion Several sprigs of parsley 

Clean, dress, and cut up the chicken. Put it into a saucepan and 
cover with boiling water. Season with the salt and add the slices 
of onion. Cook slowly until the meat will fall from the bones. 
Remove the chicken from the saucepan, take the meat from the 
bones, and chop it into small pieces. Reduce the stock to about 
1^ cupfuls, strain it, and skim ofif the fat. With this done, place 
slices of the hard-cooked egg in the bottom of a wet mold. Chop 
the pimiento and sprigs of parsley and mix them with the chopped 
meat. Put the mixture on top of the sliced egg, and pour the stock 
over the whole. Keep in a cool place until it is set. If the stock 
is not reduced and more jelly is desired, unflavored gelatine may 
be dissolved and added to coagulate the liquid. To serve jellied 
chicken, remove from the mold, turn upside down, so that the eggs 
are on top and act as a garnish, and then cut in thin slices. 

70. Chicken Bechamel. — Still another chicken dish that may 
be used to break the monotony of meals is chicken bechamel, the 
word bechamel being the name of a sauce invented by Bechamel, 
who was steward to Louis XIV, a king of France. 

Chicken Bechamel 

1 good-sized chicken ^ c. chopped pimiento 

2 tsp. salt 3 Tb. flour 

i tsp. pepper 1 c. thin cream 

1 c. small mushrooms 

\VI— C3— 13 



46 POULTRY AND GAME §12 

Clean, dress, and cut up the chicken. Place the pieces into a 
saucepan, and cover with boiling water. Add the salt and the 
pepper, and allow to come to the boiling point. Remove the 
scum and simmer the chicken slowly until it is tender. Remove 
the chicken from the liquid, take the meat from the bones, and cut 
it into small pieces. Add to these the mushrooms and chopped 
pimiento. Reduce the stock to 1 cupful and thicken it with the flour 
added to the thin cream. Cook vmtil the sauce is thickened. Then 
add to it the chopped chicken with the other ingredients. Heat all 
thoroughly and serve on toast points or in timbale cases, the making 
of which is explained in Meat, Part 2. 

71. Cooking of Giblets. — As has been pointed out, the gib- 
lets — that is, the liver, heart, and gizzard of all kinds of fowl — 
are used in gravy making and as an ingredient for stuffing. When 
poultry is stewed, as in making stewed chicken, it is not uncommon 
to cook the giblets with the pieces of chicken. The gizzard and 
heart especially require long, slow cooking to make them tender 
enough to be eaten. Therefore, when poultry is broiled, fried, or 
roasted, some other cookery method must be resorted to, as these 
processes are too rigid for the preparation of giblets. In such cases, 
the best plan is to cook them in water until they are tender and 
then saute them in butter. When cooked in this way, they may be 
served with the poultry, for to many persons they are very palatable. 



DISHES FROM LEFT-OVER POIXTRY 

72. Left-over poultry of any kind is too valuable to be wasted, 
but even if this were not so there are so many practical ways in 
which such left-overs may be used to advantage that it would be the 
height of extravagance not to utilize them. The bones that remain 
from roast fowl after carving are especially good for soup making, 
as they will yield quite a quantity of flavor when they are thoroughly 
cooked. If sufficient meat remains on the carcass to permit of 
slicing, such meat may be served cold. However, if merely small 
pieces are left or if fried or broiled poultry remains, it will be 
advisable to make some other use of these left-overs. It is often 
possible for the ingenious housewife to add other foods to them so 
as to increase the quantity and thus make them serve more. For 
example, a small quantity of pork or veal may be satisfactorily used 



§ 12 POULTRY AND GAME 47 

with chicken, as may also pieces of hard-cooked eggs, celery, mush- 
rooms, etc. In fact, salads may be made by combining such ingre- 
dients and salad dressings. To show the use of left-overs still 
further, there are here given a number of recipes that may well be 
used. 

73. Chicken Salad. — A common way in which to utilize left- 
over chicken is in chicken salad. Such salad may be served to 
advantage for luncheons and other light meals. 

Chicken Salad 

2 c. cold diced chicken Salad dressing 

1 c. chopped celery 2 hard-cooked eggs 

1 small onion, chopped 
Mix the meat with the chopped celery and onion. Marinate with 
well-seasoned vinegar or a little lemon juice. French dressing may 
be used for this if oil is desired. Just before serving pour olT any 
excess liquid. Add any desired salad dressing. Heap the salad on 
lettuce leaves and garnish with slices of the hard-cooked eggs. 

74. Chicken a la King-. — Chicken a la king is not necessarily 
a left-over dish, for it may be made from either left-over chicken 
or, if desired, chicken cooked especially for it. It makes an excel- 
lent dish to prepare in a chafing dish, but it may be conveniently 
prepared in a saucepan on the fire and served in any desirable way. 

Chicken a la King 
3 Tb. fat (butter or bacon fat 1 tsp. salt 

or part of each) | c. mushrooms 

2 Tb. flour ^ c. canned pimiento 

f c. chicken stock He. cold chicken 

1 c. milk or thin cream 2 eggs 

Melt the fat in a saucepan, add the flour, and stir until well mixed. 
Heat the stock and the milk or cream, pour this into the mixture, 
stir rapidly, and bring to boiling point. Add the salt and the 
mushrooms, pimientoes, and cold chicken cut into pieces ^ to 1 inch 
long, allow the mixture to come to the boiling point again, and add 
the slightly beaten eggs. Remove from the fire at once to prevent 
the egg from curdling. Serve over pieces of fresh toast and sprinkle 
with paprika. 

75. Chicken Croquettes. — Left-over chicken may be used 
to advantage for croquettes made according to the following recipe. 
When the ingredients listed are combine^ with chicken, an espe- 



48 POULTRY AND GAME § 12 

cially agreeable food will be the result. If there is not sufficient cold 
chicken to meet the requirements, a small quantity of cold veal or 
pork may be chopped with the chicken. 

Chicken Croquettes 
3 Tb. fat 2 c. cold chicken, chopped 

^ c. flour ^ c. mushrooms, chopped 

1 tsp. salt 1 tsp. parsley, chopped 

i tsp. pepper 1 egg 

5 tsp. paprika Fine bread crumbs 

1 c. chicken stock or cream 
iVlelt the fat in a saucepan, add the flour, and stir until well 
blended. Add the salt, pepper, and paprika. Heat the stock or 
cream and add to the mixture in the saucepan. Stir constantly 
until the sauce is completely thickened. Then add the chopped 
chicken, mushrooms, and parsley. When cold, shape into oblong 
croquettes, roll in the egg, slightly beaten, and then in fine crumbs. 
Fry in deep fat until brown. Serve with a garnish or some vege- 
table, such as peas, diced carrots, or small pieces of cauliflower, as 
well as with left-over chicken gravy or well-seasoned white sauce. 

76. Turkey Hash. — Possibly the simplest way in which to 
utilize left-over turkey meat is to make it up into hash. Such a 
dish may be used for almost any meal, and when made according 
to the recipe here given it will suit the taste of nearly every person. 

Turkey Hash 

2 Tb. butter i c. finely chopped raw potato 

•J c. coarse rye-bread crumbs 1 tsp. salt 

i small onion, sliced -J tsp. pepper 

2 c. finely chopped cold turkey 1 pt. milk 

Melt the butter in a saucepan. When brown, add to it the rye- 
bread crumbs and mix well. Then add the sliced onion, chopped 
turkey, potato, salt, and pepper. Cook for a short time on top of 
the stove, stirring frequently to prevent burning. Pour the milk over 
the whole, and place the pan in the oven or on the back of the stove. 
Cook slowly until the milk is reduced and the hash is sufficiently 
dry to serve. Serve on buttered toast. 

77. Chicken With Rice. — Left-over chicken may be readily 
combined with rice to make a nutritious dish. To prepare chicken 
with rice, add to left-over gravy any left-over cold chicken cut into 
small pieces. If there is not enough gravy to cover the meat, add 
sufficient white sauce ; if no gravy remains, use white sauce entirely. 



§12 POULTRY AND GAME 49 

Ileat the chicken in the gravy or the sauce to the boihng point. 
Then heap a mound of fresh steamed or boiled rice in the center of a 
deep platter or a vegetable dish and pour the chicken and sauce 
over it. Serve hot. 

78. Baked Poultry With Rice. — A casserole or a baking 
dish serves as a good utensil in which to prepare a left-over dish 
of any kind of poultry, because it permits vegetables to be added 
an.d cooked thoroughly. Baked poultry with rice is a dish that may 
be prepared in such a utensil. 

Line a casserole or a baking dish with a thick layer of fresh 
steamed or boiled rice. Fill the center with chopped cold poultry, 
which may be chicken, turkey, duck, or goose. Add peas, chopped 
carrots, potato, and a few slices of onion in any desirable propor- 
tion. Over this pour sufficient left-over gravy or white sauce to 
cover well. First, steam thoroughly ; then cover the utensil and 
bake slowly until the vegetables are cooked and the entire mixture 
is well heated. Serve from the casserole or baking dish. 



SERVING AND CARVING POULTRY 

79. Poultry of any kind should always be served on a platter 
or in a dish that has been heated in the oven or by running hot water 
over it. After placing the cooked bird on the platter or the dish 
from which it is to be served, it should be taken to the dining room 
and placed before the person who is to serve. If it is roasted, it will 
require carving. If not, the pieces may be served as they are desired 
by the individuals at the table. Poultry having both dark and white 
meat is usually served according to the taste of each individual at 
the table. If no preference is stated, however, a small portion of 
each kind of meat is generally served. 

80. The carving of broiled or roast chicken, turkey, duck, or 
goose may be done in the kitchen, but having the whole bird brought 
to the table and carved there adds considerably to a meal. Carving 
is usually done by the head of the family, but in a family in which 
there are boys each one should be taught to carve properly, so that 
he may do the carving in the absence of another person. 

For carving, the bird should be placed on the platter so that it 
rests on its back; also, a well-sharpened carving knife and a fork 



50 POULTRY AND GAME § 12 

should be placed at the right of the platter and the person who is to 




serve. To carve a bird, begin as shown in Fig. 46; that is, thrust 
the fork firmly into the side or breast of the fowl and cut through 




Fig. 47 



the skin where the leg joins the body, breaking the thigh joint. 



§12 



POULTRY AND GAME 



51 



Cut through this joint, severing the second joint and leg in one 
piece. Then, if desired, cut the leg apart at the second joint. As 




the portions are thus cut, they may be placed on a separate platter 
that is brought to the table heated. Next, in the same manner, cut 



^ 



I 









oit the other leg and separate it at the second joint. With the legs 
cut off, remove each wing at the joint where it is attached to the 



52 



POULTRY AND GAAIE 



12 



body, proceeding as shown in Fig. 47. Then shoe the meat from 
the breast by cutting down from the ridge of the breast bone toward 

the wing, as in Fig. 48. 
After this meat has been 
shced off, there still re- 
mains some meat around 
the thigh and on the 
back. This should be 
sliced off or removed 
with the point of the 
laiife, as in Fig. 49, so 
that the entire skeleton 
will be clean, as in 
Fig. 50. If the entire 
bird is not to be served, 
as much as is necessary 
may be cut and the re- 
mainderlefton the bones. 
With each serving of 
meat a spoonful of dressing should be taken from the inside of 
the bird, provided it is stuffed, and, together with some gravy, 
served on the plate. 




Fig. 50 



GAME 



GENERAL DESCRIPTION 

81. Game, which includes the meat of deer, bear, rabbit, 
squirrel, wild duck, wild goose, partridge, pheasant, and some less 
common animals, such as possum, is not a particularly common food. 
However, it is sufficiently common to warrant a few directions con- 
cerning its use. Game can be purchased or caught only during 
certain seasons, designated by the laws of various states. Such laws 
are quite stringent and have been made for the protection of each 
particular species. 

82. The meat of wild animals and birds is usually strong in 
flavor. Just why this is so, however, is not definitely known. 
Undoubtedly some of the strong flavor is due to the particular food 



§ 12 POULTRY AND GAME 53 

on which the animal or the bird feeds, and much of this flavor is 
due to extractives contained in the flesh. 

When game birds and animals have considerable fat surrounding 
the tissues, the greater part of it is often rejected because of its 
extremely high flavor. By proper cooking, however, much of this 
flavor, if it happens to be a disagreeable one, can be driven off. 

The general composition of the flesh of various kinds of game 
does not differ greatly from that of similar domestic animals or 
birds. For instance, the flesh of bear is similar in its composition 
to that of fat beef, as bear is one of the w'ild animals that is very 
fat. Venison, or the meat obtained from deer, contains much less 
fat, and its composition resembles closely that of very lean beef. 
Rabbits and most of the wild birds are quite lean ; in fact, they are so 
lean that it is necessary in the preparation of them to supply sufficient 
fat to make them more appetizing. 



RECIPES FOR GAME 

83. Only a few recipes for the preparation of game are here 
given, because, in the case of wild birds, the cookery methods do 
not differ materially from those given for poultry, and, in the case 
of such animals as bears, the directions for preparing steaks and 
other cuts are identical with the cooking of similar cuts of beef. 
Rabbit and squirrel are perhaps the most common game used as 
food in the home ; therefore, directions for cleaning and cooking 
them receive the most consideration. 

84. Preparing a Rabbit for Cooking-. — In order to pre- 
pare a rabbit for cooking, it must first be skinned and drawn, after 
which it may be cut up or left whole, depending on the cookery 
method that is to be followed. 

To skin a rabbit, first chop off the feet at the first joint; then 
remove the head at the first joint below the skull and slit the skin 
of the stomach from a point between the forelegs to the hind legs. 
With this done, remove the entrails carefully, proceeding in much 
the same manner as in removing the entrails of a chicken. Then 
slit the skin from the opening in the stomach around the back to the 
opposite side. Catch hold on the back and pull the skin first from 
the hind legs and then from the forelegs. If the rabbit is to be 
stewed, wash it thoroughly and separate it into pieces at the joints. 



54 POULTRY AND GAME § 12 

If it is to be roasted or braized, it may be left whole. A rabbit that 
is left whole presents a better appearance when it is trussed. To 
truss a rabbit, force the hind legs toward the head and fasten them 
in place by passing a skewer through the leg on one side, through 
the body, and into the leg on the other side. Then skewer the front 
legs back under the body in the same way. In such a case, the head 
may be left on or removed, as desired. 

85. Roast Rabbit. — Roasting is the cookery process often 
used to prepare rabbit. To cook it in this way, first skin and clean 
the animal and stufif it. Any of the stuffings previously given may 
be used for this purpose. Then skewer the legs in position, place 
strips of bacon across the back, put in a roasting pan, and dredge 
with salt and pepper. Also, add ^ cupful of hot water to which 
has been added a little butter or bacon fat. Roast in a quick oven, 
and baste every 15 minutes during the roasting. A few minutes 
before the rabbit is tender enough to be pierced with a fork, remove 
the strips of bacon so that the flesh underneath may brown. Then 
remove from the pan and serve. 

86. Sauted Rabbit. — If it is desired to prepare a rabbit by 
sauteing, skin and clean it, cut it into pieces, and dry all the pieces 
with a soft cloth. Then melt bacon fat in a frying pan, and when 
it is hot place the pieces of rabbit in it and allow them to brown. 
Add several sprigs of parsley and two small onions, sliced, season 
with salt and pepper, add a slice or two of bacon, and pour water 
over the whole until it is nearly covered. Place a cover on the frying 
pan and simmer slowly. Add water when it is necessary. When 
the meat is tender, remove it from the frying pan. Then thicken 
the fluid that remains with a small amount of flour so as to make 
a gravy. Serve hot. 

87. Rabbit Pie. — Rabbit made into pie is also a desirable way 
in which to serve rabbit. To prepare such a dish, skin and clean 
one or more rabbits and cut them up into as small pieces as possible, 
removing the largest bones. Put these pieces into a baking dish, 
and over them place bacon cut into small strips. Sprinkle all with 
chopped parsley, salt, and pepper, and add a few slices of onion, as 
well as some strips of carrot and potato, if desired. Pour a suffi- 
cient amount of boiling water over the whole and allow to simmer 
slowly until the meat is partly cooked. Then place in the oven and 
cook until the meat is tender. Next, dredge the contents of the 



§ 12 POULTRY AND GAME 55 

baking dish with flour and cover with a ^-inch layer of baking- 
powder biscuit dough. Make several slits through the dough to allow 
the steam to escape. Bake until the dough becomes a well-browned 
crust. Serve hot in the baking dish. 

88. Broiled Squirrel. — For cooking, squirrel is cleaned in 
practically the same way as rabbit. Squirrel may be made ready to 
eat by stewing, but as it is so small a creature, broiling is the usual 
method of preparation. To broil a squirrel, first remove the skin and 
clean it. Then break the bones along the spine, so that the squirrel 
can be spread out flat. When thus made ready, place it on a well- 
greased hot broiler and sear it quickly on one side ; then turn it and 
sear the other side. Next, sprinkle it with salt and pepper, place 
strips of bacon across the back, and allow it to broil slowly until 
it is well browned. Squirrel may be served in the same way as 
rabbit. 

89. Cuts of Venison. — The meat obtained from deer, called 
venison, as has been mentioned, may be cut up to form cuts similar 
to those obtained from beef, such as steaks and roasts. Although 
such meat is a rarity, it will be well to be familiar with a few of the 
methods of cooking it. These, however, do not dift'er materially 
from the methods of cooking other meats. 

90. Broiled Venison. — To prepare venison for broiling, cut 
a steak from 1 to 1^ inches thick. Place this on a well-greased 
broiler and broil until well done. Serve on a hot platter. Garnish 
the broiled venison with parsley and pour over it sauce made as 
follows : 

Sauce for Broiled Venison 
2 Tb. butter 2 tsp. lemon juice 

2 Tb. flour 5 c. port wine 

i tsp. salt 6 finely chopped Maraschino 

I tsp. ground cinnamon cherries 

4 Tb. currant jelly 

Melt the butter in a saucepan, acid the flour, salt, ground cinna- 
mon, currant jelly, lemon juice, and the port wine, which should 
be heated with 1 cupful of water. Cook until the flour has thick- 
ened, remove from the fire, and add the cherries. 

91. Roast Fillet of Venison. — If a fillet of venison is to be 
roasted, proceed by larding it with strips of salt pork. Then place 



56 POULTRY AND GAME § 12 

it in a pan with one small onion, sliced, a bay leaf, and a small quan- 
tity of parsley, 1 teaspoonful of salt, and ^ teaspoonful of pepper. 
Dilute J cupful of vinegar with f cupful of water and add a tea- 
spoonful of Worcestershire sauce. Pour this over the fillet and 
place it in a hot oven. Cook until the liquid has evaporated suffi- 
ciently to allow the venison to brown. Turn, so as to brown on both 
sides, and when quite tender and well browned, serve on a hot 
platter. 

92. Roast Leg of Venison. — If a leg of venison is to be 
roasted, first remove the skin, wipe the meat with a damp cloth, 
and cover it with a paste made of flour and water. Then put it 
into a roasting pan and roast in a very hot oven. Baste with hot 
water every 15 minutes for about H hours. At the end of this 
time, remove the paste, spread the surface with butter, sprinkle 
vvith salt and pepper, and continue to roast for 1 to 1^ hours longer. 
Baste every 15 minutes, basting during the last hour with hot water 
in which has been melted a small quantity of butter. Then remove 
the venison from the pan and serve it on a hot platter with any 
desired sauce. 



POULTRY AND GAME 



EXAMINATIOX QUESTIONS 

(1) Of what value is poultry in the diet? 

(2) What effect do the feeding and care of poultry have upon it as food? 

(3) Mention briefly the proper preparation of poultry killed for market. 

(4) (a) What are the most important things to consider when poultry is 
to be selected? (b) Give the points that indicate good quality of poultry. 

(5) How would you determine the age of a chicken? 

(6) How would you determine the freshness of a chicken? 

(7) (a) What are the marks of cold-storage poultr>'? (b) Should cold- 
storage poultry be drawn or undrawn ? Tell why. 

(8) How should frozen poultry be thawed? 

(9) Tell briefly how turkey should be selected. 

(10) At what age and season is turkey best? 

(11) Discuss the selection of : (a) ducks; (/;) geese. 

(12) (a) How does the composition of poultry compare with that of meat? 
(b) What kind of chicken has a high food value? 

(13) (a) How should a chicken be dressed? (b) What care should be 
given to the skin in plucking? 

(14) Give briefly the steps in drawing a chicken. 

(15) Give briefly the steps in cutting up a chicken. 

(16) How is poultry prepared for : (a) roasting? (b) frying? (r) broiling? 
(d) stewing? 

(17) (a) Describe trussing, (b) Why is trussing done? 

(18) Give briefly the steps in boning a chicken. 

(19) Tell briefly how to serve and carve a roasted bird. 

(20) Discuss game in a general way. 

ADDITION AI., WORK 

Select a fowl by applying the tests given for selection in the lesson. Prepare 
it by what seems to you to be the most economical method. Tell how many 
persons are served and the use made of the left-overs. Compute the cost per 
serving by dividing the cost of the fowl by the number of servings it made. 

At another time, select a chicken for frying by applying the tests given in 
the lesson. Compute the cost per serving by dividing the cost of the chicken by 
the number of servings it made. 

Compare the cost per serving of the fried chicken with that of the fowl, to 
find which is the more economical. In each case, collect the bones after the 
chicken is eaten and weigh them to determine which has the greater proportion 
of bone to meat, the fowl or the frying chicken. Whether you have raised the 
poultry yourself or have purchased it in the market, use the market price in 
computing your costs. Weigh the birds carefully before drawing them. 

§12 



FISH AND SHELL FISH 



FISH 



FISH IN THE DIET 

1. Fish provides another class of high-protein or tissue-building 
food. As this term is generally understood, it includes both verte- 
brate fish — that is, fish having a backbone, such as salmon, cod, shad, 
etc. — and many other water animals, such as lobsters, crabs, shrimp, 
oysters, and clams. A distinction, however, is generally made 
between these two groups, those having bones being regarded prop- 
erly as fish and those partly or entirely encased in shells, as shell fi,sh. 
It is according to this distinction that this class of foods is con- 
sidered in this Section. Because all the varieties of both fish and 
shell fish are in many respects similar, the term sea food is often 
applied to them, but, as a rule, this term is restricted to designate 
salt-water products as distinguished from fresh-water fish. 

2. Fish can usually be purchased at a lower price than meat, and 
for this reason possesses an economic advantage over it. Besides 
the price, the substitution of fish for meat makes for economy in a 
number of ways to which consideration is not usually given. These 
will become clearly evident when it is remembered that nearly all 
land animals that furnish meat live on many agricultural products 
that might be used for human food. Then, too, other foods fed to 
animals, although not actually human foods, require in their raising 
the use of soil that might otherwise be utilized for the raising of 
food for human beings. This is not true in the case of fish. They 
consume the vegetation that grows in lakes, streams, and the ocean, 
as well as various kinds of insects, small fish, etc., which cannot be 
used as human food and which do not require the use of the soil. 

COPYRIGHTED BY INTERNATIONAL EDUCATIONAL PUBLISHING COMPANY. ALL RIGHTS RESERVEO 

§13 



3 FISH AND SHELL FISH §13 

In addition, much of the food that animals, which are warm-blooded, 
take into their bodies is required to maintain a constant temperature 
above that of their surroundings, so that not all of what they eat is 
used in building up the tissues of their bodies. With fish, however, 
it is different. As they are cold-blooded and actually receive heat 
from their surroundings, they do not require food for bodily 
warmth. Practically all that they take into the body is built up into 
a supply of flesh that may be used as food for human beings. 

3. With fish, as with other foods, some varieties are sought more 
than others, the popularity of certain kinds depending on the indi- 
vidual taste or the preference of the people in a particular locality. 
Such popularity, however, is often a disadvantage to the purchaser, 
because a large demand for certain varieties has a tendency to cause 
a rise in price. The increased price does not indicate that the fish 
is of more value to the consumer than some other fish that may be 
cheaper because it is less popular, although quite as valuable from 
a food standpoint. The preference for particular kinds of fish and 
the persistent disregard of others that are edible is for the most 
part due to prejudice. In certain localities, one kind of fish may 
be extremely popular while in others the same fish may not be used 
for food at all. Such prejudice should be overcome, for, as a 
matter of fact, practically every fish taken from pure water is fit to 
eat, in the sense that it furnishes food and is not injurious to health. 

In addition, any edible fish should be eaten in the locality where 
it is caught. The transportation of this food is a rather difficult 
matter, and, besides, it adds to the cost. It is therefore an excellent 
plan to make use of the kind of fish that is most plentiful, as such 
practice will insure both better quality and a lower market price. 

4. As is well known, fish is an extremely perishable food. 
Therefore, when it is caught in quantities too great to be used at 
one time, it is preserved in various ways. The preservation methods 
that have proved to be the most satisfactory are canning, salting and 
drying, smoking, and preserving in various kinds of brine and pickle. 
As such methods are usually carried out in the locality where the 
fish is caught, many varieties of fish can be conveniently stored for 
long periods of time and so distributed as to meet the requirements 
of the consumer. This plan enables persons far removed from the 
source of supply to procure fish frequently. 



§13 FISH AND SHELL FISH 



COMPOSITION AND FOOD VALUE OF FISH 



COMPOSITION OF FISH 

5. Comparison of Fish With Meat. — In general, the com- 
position of fish is similar to that of meat, for both of them are high- 
protein foods. However, some varieties of fish contain large 
quantities of fat and others contain very little of this substance, so the 
food value of the different kinds varies greatly. As in the case of 
meat, fish is lacking in carbohydrate. Because of the close similarity 
between these two foods, fish is a very desirable substitvite for meat. 
In fact, fish is in some respects a better food than meat, but it can- 
not be used so continuously as meat without becoming monotonous ; 
that is to say, a person will grow tired of fish much more quickly 
than of most meats. The similarity between the composition of fish 
and that of meat has much to do with regulating the price of these 
protein foods, which, as has already been learned, are the highest 
priced foods on the market. 

6. Protein in Fish. — In fish, as well as in shell fish, a very 
large proportion of the food substances present is protein. This 
proportion varies with the quantity of water, bone, and refuse that 
the particular food contains, and with the physical structure of the 
food. In fresh fish, the percentage of this material varies from 
6 to 17 per cent. The structure of fish is very similar to that of 
meat, as the flesh is composed of tiny hollow fibers containing extrac- 
tives, in which are dissolved mineral salts and various other 
materials. The quantity of extractives found in these foods, how- 
ever, is less than that found in meat. Fish extracts of any kind, 
such as clam juice, oyster juice, etc., are similar in their composition 
to any of the extractives of meat, differing only in the kind and 
proportions. In addition to the muscle fibers of fish, which are, of 
course, composed of protein, fish contains a small quantity of albu- 
min, just as meat does. It is the protein material in fish, as well as 
in shell fish, that is responsible for its very rapid decomposition. 

The application of heat has the same effect on the protein of fish 
as it has on that of meat, fowl, and other animal tissues. Conse- 
quently, the same principles of cookery apply to both the retention 
and the extraction of flavor. 

WI-C3-14 



4 FISH AND SHELL FISH §13 

7. Fat in Fish. — The percentage of fat in fish varies from less 
than 1 per cent, in some cases to a trifle more than 14 per cent, in 
others, but this high percentage is rare, as the average fish probably 
does not exceed from 3 to 6 or 7 per cent, of fat. This variation 
afifects the total food value proportionately. The varieties of fish 
that contain the most fat deteriorate most rapidly and withstand 
transportation the least well, so that when these are secured in large 
quantities they are usually canned or preserved in some manner. 
Fish containing a large amount of fat, such as salmon, turbot, eel, 
herring, halibut, mackerel, mullet, butterfish, and lake trout, have a 
more moist quality than those which are without fat, such as cod. 
Therefore, as it is difficult to cook fish that is lacking in fat and 
keep it from becoming dry, a fat fish makes a more palatable food 
than a lean fish. The fat of fish is very strongly flavored; conse- 
quently, any that cooks out of fish in its preparation is not suitable 
for use in the cooking of other foods. 

8. Carbohydrate in Fish. — Like meat, fish does not contain 
carbohydrate in any appreciable quantity. In fact, the small amount 
that is found in the tissue, and that compares to the glycogen found 
in animal tissues, is not present in sufficient quantities to merit con- 
sideration. 

9. Mineral Matter in Fish.^ — In fish, mineral matter is quite 
as prevalent as in meat. Through a notion that fish contains large 
proportions of phosphorus, and because this mineral is also present 
in the brain, the idea that fish is a brain food has become widespread. 
It has been determined, however, that this belief has no foundation. 



POOD VALLE OP PISH 

10. Factors Determining Food Value. — The total food 
value of fish, as has been shown, is high or low, varying with the 
food substances it contains. Therefore, since, weight for weight, 
the food value of fat is much higher than that of protein, it follows 
that the fish containing the most fat has the highest food value. Fat 
and protein, as is well known, do not serve the same function in the 
body, but each has its purpose and is valuable and necessary in the 
diet. Some varieties of fish contain fat that is strong in flavor, and 
from these the fat should be removed before cooking, especially if 
the flavor is disagreeable. This procedure of course reduces the 



§13 



FISH AND SHELL FISH 



total food value of the fish, but it should be done if it increases the 
palatability. 

11. Relative Nutritive Value of Fish and Meat. — When 
fish and meat are compared, it will be observed that some kinds of 
fish have a higher food value than meat, particularly if the fish con- 
tains much fat and the meat is lean. Whfen the average of each of 

TABLE I 

COMPARISOIV OF COMPOSITIOIV AND FOOD VALUE OF FISH AND MEAT 





Composition 


Total Food 

Value 

per Pound 

Calories 


Food Value 
per Pound 


Edible Portion 


Protein 
Per Cent. 


Fat 
Per Cent. 


- Due to 
Protein 
Calories 


Fish: 

Bass, black 

Bluefish 


20.6 

19.4 
17.4 
14.4 
18.6 
17.8 
19.2 
21.8 
22.9 

20.3 
21.5 
19.3 
19.2 
16.6 


1.7 
1.2 

2.6 
20.6 
5.2 
1.0 
1.0 
12.1 
6.5 

13.6 
2.5 
16.3 
16.5 
30.1 


443 
401 

421 
1,102 
550 
363 
389 
888 
680 

895 
492 

1.016 
870 

1,455 


373 

352 


Carp 

Catfish 


315 
262 


Halibut steak 

Lake trout 

Red snapper 

Salmon (canned) . 

Whitefish 

Meat: 

Beef, round, medi- 
um fat 


337 
323 
348 
396 
415 

368 


Chicken, broilers . . 

Fowl 

Lamb, leg 

Pork chops 


390 
350 
348 
301 



these foods is compared, however, meat will be found to have a 
higher food value than fish. To show how fish compares with meat 
and fowl, the composition and food value of several varieties of each 
food are given in Table I. which is taken from a United States 
government bulletin. 

12. A study of this table will show that on the whole the per-, 
centage of protein in the various kinds of fish is as much as that 



6 FISH AND SHELL FISH §13 

in meat, while in a few instances, it is greater. This proves that so 
far as the quantity of protein is concerned, these two foods are 
equally valuable in their tissue-forming and tissue-building quali- 
ties. It will be seen also that the percentage of fat in fish varies 
greatly, some varieties containing more than meat, but most of them 
containing less. Furthermore, the total food value per pound, in 
calories, is for the most part greater in meat than in fish, whereas 
the food value per pound due to protein is equivalent in most cases, 
but higher in some of the fish than in the meat. 

13. It must also be remembered that the drying or preserving 
of fish does not in any way decrease its food value. In fact, pound 
for pound, dried fish, both smoked and salt, contains more nutritive 
value than fresh fish, because the water, which decreases the food 
value of fresh fish, is driven ofl:' in drying. However, when prepared 
for eating, dried fish in all probability has more food value than 
fresh fish, because water or moisture of some sort must be supplied 
in its preparation. 

14. The method of preparing dried or preserved fish, as well as 
fresh fish, has much to do with the food value obtained from it. 
Just as nutritive value is lost in the cooking of meat by certain 
methods, so it may be lost in the preparation of fish if the proper 
methods are not applied. To obtain as much food value from fish 
as possible, the various points that are involved in its cookery must 
be thoroughly imderstood. Certain facts concerning the buying of 
fish must also be kept in mind. For instance, in canned fish, almost 
all the bones, skin, and other inedible parts, except the tails, heads, 
and fins of very small fish, have been removed before packing, indi- 
cating that practically all the material purchased is edible. In the 
case of fresh fish, a large percentage of what is bought must be 
wasted in preparation and in eating, the percentage of waste varying 
from 5 to 45 per cent. 

15. Digestibility of Fish. — The food value of any food is 
an important item when its usefulness as a food is taken into account, 
but of equal importance is the manner in which the body uses the 
food; that is, whether it digests the food with ease or with diffi- 
culty. Therefore, when the value of fish as a food is to be deter- 
mined, its digestibility must receive definite consideration. As has 
already been explained, much depends on the cooking of the food 



§13 FISH AND SHELL FISH 7 

in question. On the whole, fish is found to be more easily digested 
than meat, with the exception perhaps of a few kinds or certain 
cuts. That physicians recognize this characteristic is evidenced by 
the fact that fish is often used in the feeding of invalids or sick 
people when meat is not permitted. 

16. The ease with which fish is digested is influenced largely by 
the quantity of fat it contains, for this fat, acting in identically the 
same way as the fat of meat, has the efifect of slowing the digestion 
that is carried on in the stomach. It follows, then, that with possibly 
one or two exceptions the kinds of fish most easily digested are 
those which are lean. 

17. In addition to the correct cooking of fish and the presence 
of fat, a factor that largely influences the digestibility of this food is 
the length of the fibers of the flesh. It will be remembered that the 
parts of an animal having long fibers are tougher and less easily 
digested than those having short fibers. This applies with equal 
force in the case of fish. Its truth is evident when it is known that 
cod, a lean fish, is digested with greater difiiculty than some of the 
fat fish because of the length and toughness of its fibers. This, 
however, is comparative, and it must not be thought that fish on the 
whole is digested with difficulty. 

18. Another factor that influences the digestibility of fish is the 
salting of it. Whether fish is salted dry or in brine, the salt hardens 
the fibers and tissues. While the salt acts as a preservative in caus- 
ing this hardening, it, at the same time, makes the fish preserved in 
this manner a little more difficult to digest. This slight difiference 
need scarcely be considered so far as the normal adult is concerned, 
but in case of children or persons whose digestion is not entirely 
normal its effect is likely to be felt. 



PURCHASE AND CARE OF FISH 

19. Purchase of Fish. — The housewife has much to do with 
the market price of fish and the varieties that are offered for sale, 
for these are governed by the demand created by her. The fisher- 
man's catch depends on weather conditions, the season, and other 
uncertain factors. If the kinds of fish he secures are not what the 
housewife demands, they either will not be sent to market or will go 



8 FISH AND SHELL FISH §13 

begging on the market for want of purchasers. Such a state of 
affairs should not exist, and it would not if every housewife were 

TABLE II 

3VAMES, SEASOXS, AND I SES OF FRESH FISH 

Name of Fish Season Method of Cookery 

Bass, black All the year Fried, baked 

Bass, sea All the year Baked, broiled, fried 

Bass, striped All the year Baked, broiled, fried 

Bass, lake June 1 to January 1 Baked, broiled, fried 

Bluefish May 1 to November 1 Baked, broiled 

Butterfish October 1 to May 1 Fried, sauted 

Carp July 1 to November 1 Baked, broiled, fried 

Catfish All the year Fried, sauted 

^ .^ , .„ , f Boiled, fried, sauted, 

Codfish AUtheycar | 1^,1^,^,^,,;,,^ 

Eels An the year Fried, boiled, baked 

Flounder All the year Sauted, fried, baked 

Haddock All the year Steamed, boiled, fried 

Halibut A.11 the year Boiled, fried, creamed 

Herring October 1 to May 1 Sauted, fried, broiled 

Kingfish May 1 to November 1 Boiled, steamed, baked 

, , , , . ., . ^ „ ^ , , f Baked, broiled, boiled, 

Mackerel April 1 to October 1...A ^^.^^ 

Perch, fresh water September 1 to June 1 Fried, broiled 

Pike, or pickerel, fresh "l , 1 ^ t 1 t- • r 1 -i 1 1 1 j 

' ^ Uune 1 to January 1 bried, broded, baked 

w^ater ] " 

Porgies, salt water June 15 to October 15.... Fried, sauted 

Red snapper October 1 to April 1 Boiled, steamed 

Salmon, Kennebec June 1 to October 1 Broiled, baked, boiled 

Salmon, Oregon October 1 to June 1 Broiled, baked, boiled 

Shad January 1 to June 1 Baked, broiled, fried 

Shad roe January 1 to June 1 Broiled, fried 

Sheepsheiid June 1 to September 15. . . Boiled, fried 

Smells August 15 to April IS. . . . Fried, sauted 

Sole, English November 1 to May 1 Baked, broiled, fried 

Sunfish May 1 to December 1 Fried, sauted 

rr. r , A • I 1 c- . 1 1 [Baked, broiled, fried, 

Trout, fresh water. Aprd 1 to September 1 . .| ^^.^^^^ ^^^^^^ 

Weakfish, or sea trout May 15 to October 15 Baked, broiled 

Whitebait May 1 to April 1 Fried, sauted 

„„ . ^ , ^ , XT 1 1 . AT 1 1 f Baked, fried, sauted, 

Whitefish. fresh water. .. November 1 to March 1 j . 

to buy the kind of fish that is plentiful in her home market. So 
that she may become familiar with the varieties that the market 
affords, she should carefully study Tables II and III, which give 



§13 FISH AND SHELL FISH 9 

the names, seasons, and uses of both fresh fish and salt and smoked 

fish. With the information given in these tables well in mind, she 

will be able not only to select the kind she wants, but to cooperate 

better with dealers. 

TABLE III 

names, seasons, axd vses of salt and smoked fish 

Name of Fish Season Method of Cookery 

Salt Fish 

r Served as a relish, stuffed 

... ,,, ,1 with various highly 

Anchovies All the year { . • . j 

I seasoned mixtures, used 

I as flavor for sauce 

Codfish, dried All the year Creamed, balls 

Herring, pickled All the year Sauted 

Mackerel All the year Broiled, fried, sauted 

Salmon, salt All the year Fried, broiled, boiled 

Smoked Fish 

Haddock, or finnan 1 ^ ^ , i r ^ , •, i i-, -i j , . j j 

, ... )• October 15 to April 1 Ijroiled, baked, creamed 

haddie J 

Halibut October 1 to April 1 Baked, broiled, fried 

■ved as a relish without 

cooking 

Mackerel October 1 to November 1 . . Baked, boiled, fried 

Smoked salmon .\11 the year Baked, boiled, fried 

Shad October 1 to May 1 Baked, boiled, f rie'd 

Sturgeon October 1 to May 1 Baked, boiled, fried 

Whitefish October 1 to May 1 Baked, boiled, fried 

20. Another point to be considered in the purchase of fish is the 
size. Some fish, such as halibut and salmon, are so large that they 



Herring All the year { 

[ CO 




must usually be cut into slices or steaks to permit the housewife to 
purchase the quantity she requires for immediate use. Other fish are 
of such size that one is sufficient for a meal, and others are so small 



10 



FISH AND SHELL FISH 



§13 



that several must be purchased to meet the requirements. An idea 
of the difference in the size of fish can be gained from Figs. 1 and 2. 
The larger fish in Fig. 1 is a medium-sized whitefish and the smaller 
one is a smelt. Fish about the size of smelts lend themselves readily 
to frying and sauteing, whereas the larger kinds, like whitefish, may 
be prepared to better advantage by baking either with or without 
suitable stuffing. The larger fish in Fig. 2 is a carp and the smaller 
one is a pike. Much use is made of pike, but carp has been more 
shunned than sought after. However, when carp is properly cooked, 
it is a very palatable food, and, besides, it possesses high food value. 

21. In the purchase of fish, the housewife, provided she is not 
obliged to have fish for a particular day, will do well also to get 
away from the one-day-a-week purchasing of fish ; that is, if she is 




not obliged to serve fish on Friday, she should endeavor to serve it 
on some other day. Even twice a week is not too often. If such a 
plan were followed out, fishermen would be able to market their 
catch when it is procured and the waste of fish or the necessity for 
keeping it until a particular day would be overcome. 

22. Another way in which the housewife can help herself in 
the selection of fish is to become familiar with all the varieties of 
edible fish caught in or near her community. When she has done 
this, it will be a splendid plan for her to give those with which she 
is unfamiliar a trial. She will be surprised at the many excellent 
varieties that are obtained in her locality and consequently come 
to her fresher than fish that has to be shipped long distances. 

23. Frestness of Fisli. — In the purchase of fish, the house- 
wife should not permit herself to be influenced by any prejudice 



§13 FISH AND SHELL FISH 11 

she may have as to the name or the appearance of the fish. How- 
ever, too much attention cannot be paid to its freshness. 

Several tests can be apphed to fish to determine v^hether or not it 
is fresh; therefore, when a housewife is in doubt, she should make 
an eiTort to apply them. Fish should not give off any offensive odor. 
The eyes should be bright and clear, not dull nor sunken. The gills 
should have a bright-red color, and there should be no blubber show- 
ing. The flesh should be so firm that no dent will be made when it is 
touched with the finger. Fish may also be tested for freshness by 
placing it in a pan of water; if it sinks, it may be known to be 
fresh, but if it floats it is not fit for use. 

24. Care of Fisli in tlie Home. — If fish is purchased in 
good condition, and every effort should be made to see that it is, the 
responsibility of its care in the home until it is presented to the family 
as a cooked dish rests on the housewife. If, upon reaching the 
housewife, it has not been cleaned, it should be cleaned at once. In 
case it has been cleaned either by the fish dealer or the housewife 
and cannot be cooked at once, it should be looked over carefully, 
immediately washed in cold water, salted slightly inside and out, 
placed in a covered enamel or porcelain dish, and then put where it 
will keep as cold as possible. If a refrigerator is used, the fish 
should be put in the compartment from which odors cannot be 
carried to foods in the other compartments. In cold weather, an 
excellent plan is to put the fish out of doors instead of in the 
refrigerator, for there it will remain sufficiently cold without the use 
of ice. However, the best and safest way is to cook the fish at once, 
so that storing it for any length of time after its delivery will not be 
necessary. 

Salt and smoked fish do not, of course, require the same care as 
fresh fish. However, as many of these varieties are strong in flavor, 
it is well to weaken their flavor before cooking them by soaking them 
or, if possible, by parboiling them. 



PREPARATION OF FISH FOR COOKING 
25. Cleaning: Fish. — Fish is usually prepared for cooking at 
the market where it is purchased, but frequently a fish comes into 
the home just as it has been caught. In order to prepare such a fish 
properly for cooking, the housewife must understand how to clean 
it. The various steps in cleaning fish are illustrated in Figs. 3 to 6, 



12 



FISH AND SHELL FISH 



§13 



The first step consists in removing the scales. To do this, place the 
fish on its side, as shown in Fig. 3, grasp it firmly by the tail, and 




Fig. 3 

then with the cutting edge of a knife, preferably a dull one, scrape 
off the scales by quick motions of the knife toward the head of the 
fish. AVhen one side has been scraped clean, or scaled, as this opera- 
tion is called, turn the fish over and scale the other side. 

AVith the fish scaled, proceed to remove the entrails. As shown 




in Fig. 4, cut a slit in the belly from the head end to the vent, using 
a sharp knife. Run the opening up well toward the head, as Fig. 5 



FISH AND SHELL FISH 



13 



shows, and then through the opening formed draw out the entrails 
with the fingers. 

If the head is to he removed, it should be cut off at this time. 




When a fish is to be baked or prepared in some other way in which 
the head may be retained, it is allowed to remain on, but it is kept 




more for an ornament than for any other reason. To remove the 
head, slip a sharp knife under the gills as far as possible, as Fig. 6 



14 



FISH AND SHELL FISH 



13 



shows, and then cut it off in such a way as not to remove with it any 

of the body of the fish. 

Whether the head is removed or not, make sure that the cavity 

formed by taking out the entrails is perfectly clean. Then wash the 

fish with cold water and, 
if desired, cut off the 
fins and tail, although 
this is not usually done. 
The fish, which is now 
properly prepared, may 
be cooked at once or 
placed in the refrigera- 
tor until time for cook- 




26. 

In the 



Boning Fish. 

preparation of 



some kinds of fish, it is often desired to bone the fish; that is, to 

remove the backbone and the ribs. Figs. 7 to 10 show the various 

steps in the process of boning. After the fish has been thoroughly 

cleaned, insert a sharp-pointed knife in the back where it is cut from 

the head, as shown in 

Fig. 7, and loosen the 

backbone at this place. 

Then, as in Fig. 8, slip 

the knife along the ribs 

away from the backbone 

on both sides. After 

getting the bone well 

loosened at the end, cut 

it from the flesh all the 

way down to the tail, as 

shown in Fig. 9. When 

thus separated from the Fig. 8 

flesh, the backbone and the ribs, which comprise practically all the 

bones in a fish, may be lifted out intact, as is shown in Fig. 10. 

27. Skinning Fish. — Some kinds of fish, especially those 
having no scales, such as flounder, catfish, and eels, are made more 
palatable by being skinned. To skin a fish, cut a narrow strip of the 
skin along the spine from the head to the tail, as shown in Fig. 11. 




13 



FISH AND SHELL FISH 



15 



At this opening, loosen the skin on one side where it is fastened to 
the hony part of the fish 
and then, as in Fig. 12, 
draw it off around to- 
ward the belly, working 
carefully so as not to 
tear the flesh. Some- 
times it is a good plan to 
use a knife for this pur- 
pose, working the skin 
loose from the flesh with 
the knife and at the 
same time pulling the ^''^- ^ 

skin with the other hand. After removing the skin from one side. 





Fig. 10 

turn the fish and take off the skin from the other side in the same 

Avay. Care should be 
taken to clean the fish 
properly before attempt- 
ing to skin it. If the fish 
is frozen, it should first 
he thawed in cold water. 




28. Filleting Fish. 

As many recipes require 
fish to be cut into fillets, 
that is, thick, flat slices 
^"'*^- ^^ from which the bone is 

removed, it is well for the housewife to understand just how to 



16 



FISH AND SHELL FISH 



13 



accomplish this part of the preparation. Figs. 13 to 15 show the 
filleting of a flounder. While this process varies somewhat in the 



/ # 




different varieties of fish, the usual steps are the ones here outlined. 
After thoroughly cleaning the flounder and removing the skin, lay 
the fish out flat and cut the flesh down through the center from the 

head end to the tail, as 
shown in Fig. 13. Then, 
with a knife, work each 
half of the flesh loose 
from the bones, as in 
Fig. 14. With these two 
pieces removed, turn the 
fish over, cut the flesh 
down through tlifi center, 
and separate it from the 
bones in the same man- 
ner as before. If a meat 
board is on hand, it is a 
good plan to place the 
fish on such a board be- 
fore removing the flesh. At the end of the filleting process, the 
flounder should appear as shown in Fig. 15, the long, narrow strips 
on the right being the flesh and that remaining on the board being 
the bones intact. The strips thus produced may be cut into pieces 
of any preferred size. 




§13 



FISH AND SHELL FISH 



17 



RECIPES FOR FISH AND FISH ACCOMPANIMENTS 



METHODS OP COOKIXG FISH 

29. As Tables II and III show, practically all methods of cook- 
ery are applicable in the cooking of fish. For instance, fish may be 
boiled, steamed, baked, fried, broiled, sauted, and, in addition, 
used for various kinds of bisques, chowders, and numerous other 

made dishes. The effect 

of these different meth- 
ods is exactly the same 
on fish as on meat, 
since the two foods are 
the same in general con- 
struction. The cookery 
method to select depends 
largely on the size, kind, 
quality, and flavor of 
the fish. Just as an old 
chicken with well-devel- 
oped muscles is not suit- 
able for broiling, so a very large fish should not be broiled unless it 
can be cut into slices, steaks, or thin pieces. Such a fish is usually 












55 


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1? 




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^ 


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► 







either stuffed and baked or baked without stuffing, but when it is 
cut into slices, the slices may be sauted, fried, broiled, or steamed. 
Some varieties of fish are more or less tasteless. These should 
be prepared by a cookery method that will improve their flavor, or 
if the cooking fails to add flavor, a highly seasoned or highly 



18 FISH AND SHELL FISH §13 

flavored sauce should be served with them. The acid of vinegar 
or lemon seems to assist in bringing out the flavor of fish, so when 
a sauce is not used, a slice of lemon is often served with the fish. 



RECIPES FOR FISH SAUCES AND STUFFINGS 

30. As many of the recipes for fish call for sauce and stuffing, 
recipes for these accompaniments are taken up before the methods 
of cooking fish are considered. This plan will make it possible for 
the beginner to become thoroughly familiar with these accompani- 
ments and thus be better prepared to carry out the recipes for cook- 
ing fish. 

31. Sauces for Fish. — Sauces are generally served with fish 
to improve their flavor and increase their nutritive value. Some 
kinds of fish, such as salmon, shad, butterfish, Spanish mackerel, 
etc., contain more than 6 per cent, of fat, but as many of the fish 
that are used for food contain less than this, they are somewhat dry 
and are improved considerably by the addition of a well-seasoned 
and highly flavored sauce. Then, too, some fish contain very few 
extractives, which, when present, as has been learned, are the source 
of flavor in food. As some of the methods of cooking, boiling in 
particular, dissolve the few extractives that fish contain and cause 
the loss of much of the nutritive material, it becomes almost neces- 
sary to serve a sauce with fish so prepared, if a tasty dish is to be the 
result. 

32. The sauces that may be used with fish are numerous, and 
the one to select depends somewhat on the cookery method employed 
and the preference of those to whom the fish is served. Among the 
recipes that follow will be found sauces suitable for ahy method 
that may be used in the preparation of fish. A little experience with 
them will enable the housewife to determine the ones that are most 
satisfactory as to both flavor and nutritive value for the different 
varieties of fish she uses and the methods of cookery she employs. 

Lemon Cream Sauce 

2 Tb. butter Salt and pepper 

2 Tb. flour Juice of 1 lemon or 1 Tb. 

1 c. thin cream vinegar 

Melt the butter in a saucepan, stir in the flour, and continue 
stirring until the two are well mixed. Add to this the thin cream and 



§13 FISH AND SHELL FISH 19 

stir until the mixture is thick and boils. Season with salt, pepper, 
and the juice of the lemon or the vinegar. 
Spanish Sauce 

2 Tb. butter i tsp. pepper 

1 slice of onion 1 c. milk 

2 Tb. flour 5 c. tomato puree 

1 tsp. salt ]- c. chopped pimiento 

Brown the butter with the onion, add the flour, salt, and pepper, 
and stir until well blended. Add the milk and allow the mixture to 
cook until it thickens. To this add the tomato and pimiento. Heat 
thoroughly and serve. 

Nut Sauce 

1 Tb. butter i tsp. salt 

2 Tb. flour i tsp. pepper 

2 Tb. peanut butter 1 c. meat stock 

Melt the butter and add the flour and peanut butter. When they 
are well mixed, allow them to brown slightly. Add the salt and 
pepper to this mixture and pour into it the meat stock. Bring to 
the boiling point and serve. 

Horseradish Sauce 

1 c. cream ^ tsp. salt 

^ c. boiled salad dressing ^ tsp. paprika 

2 Tb. grated horseradish ^ tsp. mustard 

Whip the cream until stiff ; then add the salad dressing, horse- 
radish, salt, paprika, and mustard. When well blended, the sauce 
is ready to serve. 

Egg Sauce 
2 Tb. butter -g tsp. pepper 

2 Tb. flour 2 Tb. vinegar 

f c. milk 1 egg 

I tsp. salt 1 Tb. chopped parsley 

Melt the butter, add the flour, and stir until well blended. Add 
the milk, salt, and pepper, and cook until the mixture thickens. To 
this add the vinegar, the egg chopped fine, and the chopped parsley. 
Heat thoroughly and serve. 

Tomato Sauce 
2 c. tomato puree 2 Tb. butter 

1 small onion, sliced 2 Tb. flour 
1 bay leaf 1 tsp. salt 

6 cloves I tsp. pepper 

Strain stewed tomato to make the puree. Put this over the fire 
in a saucepan with the sliced onion, the bay leaf, and the cloves. 

WI— C3— 15 



20 FISH AND SHELL FISH §13 

Cook slowly for about 10 minutes. Strain to remove the onion, bay- 
leaf, and cloves. Melt the butter, add the flour, salt, and pepper, 
and into this pour the hot tomato. Cook until it thickens and serve. 
Mushroom Sauce 

2 Tb. butter ^ tsp. pepper 

1 slice of carrot 2 Tb. flour 

1 slice of onion 1 c. meat stock 

Sprig of parsley ^ c. mushrooms 

•J tsp. salt 2 tsp. lemon juice 

Put the butter in a frying pan with the carrot, onion, parsley, salt, 
and pepper, and cook together until brown. Remove the onion, 
carrot, and parsley. Stir in the flour, brown it slightly, and then add 
the meat stock. Cook together until thickened. Just before remov- 
ing from the fire, add the mushrooms, chopped into fine pieces, and 
the lemon juice. Allow it to heat thoroughly and then serve. 
Drawn-Butter Sauce 

i c. butter | tsp. pepper 

2 Tb. flour He. hot water 

I tsp. salt 2 hard-cooked eggs 

Melt the butter, and add the flour, salt, and pepper. Pour into 
this the hot water, and cook until the mixture thickens. Slice the 
eggs into ^-inch slices and add these to the sauce just before remov- 
ing from the stove. 

33. Stuffing- for Fish. — As has been mentioned, fish that is 
to be baked is often stuffed before it is put into the oven. The 
stuffing not only helps to preserve the shape of the fish, but also 
provides a means of extending the flavor of the fish to a starchy 
food, for bread or cracker crumbs are used in the preparation of 
most stuffings. Three recipes for fish stuffing are here given, the 
first being made of bread crumbs and having hot water for the 
liquid, the second of cracker crumbs and having milk for the liquid, 
and the third of bread crumbs and having stewed tomato for the 
liquid. 

Fish Stuffing No. 1 

i c. butter 1 tsp. onion juice 

"I c. hot water 1 Tb. chopped parsley 

^ tsp. salt 2 c. fine bread crumbs 

■I tsp. pepper 
Melt the butter in the hot water, add the salt, pepper, onion juice, 

and parsley, and pour over the crumbs. Mix thoroughly and use 

to stuff the fish. 



gin FTSTT AND STTFJJ. FISTT 21 

Fish Stuffing No. 2 

1 c. milk ^ c. melted butter 

2 c. cracker cninibs 1 Tb. chopped parsley 
* tsp. salt 1 egg 

i tsp. pepper 

Warm the milk and add it to the crumbs, together with the salt, 
pepper, melted butter, and parsley. To this mixture, add the beaten 
egg. When well mixed, use as stuffing for fish. 
Fish Stuffing No. 3 
2 Tb. butter ^ tsp. pepper 

1 Tb. finely chopped onion 1 Tb. chopped sour pickles 

1 Tb. chopped parsley 4 c. stewed tomato 

^ tsp. salt 2 c. stale bread crumbs 

Melt the butter and add the onion, parsley, salt, pepper, pickles, 
and tomato. Pour this mixture over the crumbs, mix all thoroughly, 
and use to stufl^ the fish. If the dressing seems to require more ]i(|uid 
than the stewed tomato, add a little water. 



RECIPES FOR FRESH FISH 

34. Boiled Fish. — -Boiling extracts flavor and, to some extent, 
nutriment from the food to which this cookery method is applied. 
Therefore, unless the fish to be cooked is one that has a very strong 
flavor and that will be improved by the loss of flavor, it should not 
be boiled. Much care should be 
exercised in boiling fish, because 
the meat is usually so tender that 
it is likely to boil to pieces or to 
fall apart. 

35. A utensil in which fish 
can be boiled or steamed very 
satisfactorily is shown in Fig. 16. 
This fish boiler, as it is called, is a long, narrow, deep pan with a 
cover and a rack on which the fish is placed. Attached to each end 
of the rack is an upright strip, or handle, that permits the rack con- 
taining the fish to be lifted out of the pan and the fish thus removed 
without breaking. To assist further in holding the fish together 
while it is cooking, a piece of gauze or cheesecloth may be v/rapped 
around the fish before it is put into the pan. 




I'lG. 16 



22 FISH AND SHELL FLSH §33 

36. When a fish is to be boiled, clean it and, if desired, remove 
the head. Pour sufificient boiling water to cover the fish well into 
the vessel in which it is to be cooked, and add salt in the proportion 
of 1 teaspoonful to each quart of water. Tie the fish in a strip of 
cheesecloth or gauze if necessary, and lower it into the vessel of 
slowly boiling water. Allow the fish to boil until it may be easily 
pierced with a fork ; then take it out of the water and remove the 
cloth, provided one is used. Serve with a well-seasoned sauce, such 
as lemon cream, horseradish, etc. 

37. Boiled Cod. — A fish that lends itself well to boiling is 
fresh cod. In fact, codfish prepared according to this method and 
served with a sauce makes a very appetizing dish. 

Scale, clean, and skin a fresh cod and wrap it in a single layer of 
gauze or cheesecloth. Place it in a kettle or a pan of freshly boiling 
water to which has been added 1 teaspoonful of salt to each quart 
of water. Boil until the fish may be easily pierced with a fork, take 
from the water, and remove the gauze or cheesecloth carefully so 
as to keep the fish intact. Serve with sauce and slices of lemon. 

38. Steamed Fish. — The preparation of fish by steaming is 
practically the same as that by boiling, and produces a dish similar 
to boiled fish. The only difference is that steamed fish is suspended 
over the water and is cooked by the steam that rises instead of 
being cooked directly in the water. Because the fish is not sur- 
rounded by water, it does not lose its nutriment and flavor so readily 
as does boiled fish. 

If fish is to be cooked by steaming, first clean it thoroughly. 
Wrap in a strip of gauze or cheesecloth and place in a steamer. 
Steam until tender, and then remove the cloth and place the fish on 
a platter. As steaming does not add flavor, it is usually necessary 
to supply flavor to fish cooked in this way by adding a sauce of some 
kind. 

39. Broiled Fish. — The best way in which to cook small fish, 
thin strips of fish, or even good-sized fish that are comparatively 
thin when they are split open is to broil them. Since in this method 
of cooking the flavor is entirely retained, it is especially desirable 
for any fish of delicate flavor. 

To broil fish, sear them quickly over a very hot fire and then cook 
them more slowly until they are done, turning frequently to prevent 



§13 FISH AND SHELL FISH 23 

burning. As most fish, and particularly the small ones used for 
broiling, contain almost no fat, it is necessary to supply fat for 
successful broiling and improvement of flavor. It is difficult to add 
fat to the fish while it is broiling, so, as a rule, the fat is spread over 
the surface of the fish after it has been removed from the broiler. 
The fat may consist of broiled strips of bacon or salt pork, or it may 
be merely melted butter or other fat. 

40. Broiled Scrocl With Potato Border. — Young cod that 
is split down the back and that has had the backbone removed with 
the exception of a small portion near the tail is known as scrod. 
Such fish is nearly always broiled. It may be served plain, but it is 
much more attractive when potatoes are combined with it in the 
form of an artistic border. 

To prepare this dish, broil the scrod according to the directions 
given in Art. 39. Then place it on a hot platter and spread butter 
over it. Boil the desired number of potatoes until they are tender, 
and then force them through a ricer or mash them until they are 
perfectly fine. Season with salt, pepper, and butter, and add suffi- 
cient milk to make a paste that is a trifle stiffer than for mashed 
potatoes. If desired, raw eggs may also be beaten into the potatoes to 
serve as a part of the moisture. Fill a pastry bag with the potatoes 
thus prepared and press them through a rosette tube in any desired 
design on the platter around the fish. Bake in a hot oven until the 
potatoes are thoroughly heated and are browned slightly on the top. 

41. Broiled Fresh Mackerel. — Probably no fish lends itself 
better to broiling than fresh mackerel, as the flesh of this fish is 
tender and contains sufficient fat to have a good flavor. To improve 
the flavor, however, strips of bacon are usually placed over the fish 
and allowed to broil with it. 

Clean and skin a fresh mackerel. Place the fish thus prepared in 
a broiler, and broil first on one side and then on the other. When 
seared all over, place strips of bacon over the fish and continue to 
broil until it is done. Remove from the broiler, season with salt and 
pepper, and serve. 

42. Broiled Shad Roe. — The mass of eggs found in shad, as 
shown in Fig. 17, is known as the roe of shad. Roe may be pur- 
chased separately, when it is found in the markets from January 1 to 
June 1, or it may be procured from the fish itself. It makes a 



24 



FISH AND SHELL FISH 



13 



delicious dish when broiled, especially when it is rolled in fat and 
bread crumbs. 

Wash the roe that is to be used and dry it carefully between 
towels. Roll it in bacon fat or melted butter and then in fine crumbs. 




Place in a broiler, broil until completely done on one side, turn and 
then broil until entirely cooked on the other side. Remove from the 
broiler and pour melted butter over each piece. Sprinkle with salt 
and pepper, and serve hot. 



43. Baked Fish. — Good-sized fish, that is, fish weighing 4 or 
5 pounds, are usually baked. When prepared by this method, fish 
are very satisfactory if they are spread out on a pan, flesh side up, 

and baked in a very hot 
oven with sufficient fat 
to flavor them well. A 
fish of large size, how- 
ever, is especially deli- 
cious if its cavity is filled 
with a stuffing before it 
is baked. 

When a fish is to be 

stufifed, any desired 

stuffing is prepared and 

I'lG. 18 then filled into the fish 

in the manner shown in Fig. 18. With the cavity well filled, the 

edges of the fish are drawn together over the stuffing and sewed 

with a coarse needle and thread, as Fig. 19 shows. 

Whether the fish is stuffed or not, the same principles apply in its 
baking as apply in the roasting of meat ; that is, the heat of a quick, 




13 



FISH AND SHELL FISH 



25 



hot oven sears the flesh, keeps in the juices, and prevents the loss of 
flavor, while that of a slow oven causes the loss of much of the flavor 
and moisture and pro- 
duces a less tender dish. 

44. Often, in t h e 
baking of fish, it is 
necessary to add fat. 
This may be done by 
putting fat of some kind 
into the pan with the 
fish, by spreading strips 
of bacon over the fish, 
or by larding it. In the 
dry varieties of fish, 
larding, which is illus- 
trated in Fig. 20, proves very satisfactory, for it supplies the sub- 
stance in which the fish is most lacking. As will be observed, larding 
is done by inserting strips of bacon or salt pork that are about 3 
inches long and I inch thick into gashes cut into the sides of the fish. 

45. Baked Haddock. — zA.s haddock is a good-sized fish, it is 
an especially suitable one for baking. However, it is a dry fish, so 












flH^H 




1 > 






^^BH 




r ^^ 


<l 




t^^^H 


^^ 




bS^ 


<t 






J^^,^ 





fat should be added to it to improve its flavor. Any of the methods 
suggested in Art. 44 may be used to supply the fat that this fish 
needs. 

When haddock is to be baked, select a 4- or 5-pound fish, clean it 
thoroughly, boning it if desired, and sprinkle it inside and out with 



26 FISH AND SHELL FISH §13 

salt. Fill the cavity with any desired stuffing and sew up. Place in 
a dripping pan, and add some bacon fat or a piece of salt pork, or 
place several slices of bacon around it. Bake in a hot oven for about 
1 hour. After it has been in the oven for about 15 minutes, baste 
with the fat that will be found in the bottom of the pan and continue 
to baste every 10 minutes until the fish is done. Remove from the 
pan to a platter, garnish with parsley and slices of broiled bacon, and 
serve with any desired sauce. 

46. Baked Halibut. — Because of its size, halibut is cut into 
slices and sold in the form of steaks. It is probably one of the most 
economical varieties of fish to buy, for very little bone is contained 
in a slice and the money that the housewife expends goes for almost 
solid meat. Halibut slices are often sauted, but they make a deli- 
cious dish when baked with tomatoes and flavored with onion, 
lemon, and bay leaf, as described in the accompanying recipe. 

Baked Halibut 

(Sufficient to Serve Six) 

2 c. tomatoes ^ tsp. pepper 

Few slices onion 2 thin slices bacon 

1 bay leaf 1 Tb. flour 

1 tsp. salt 2 lb. halibut steak 

Heat the tomatoes, onion, and bay leaf in water. Add the salt 
and pepper and cook for a few minutes. Cut the bacon into small 
squares, try it out in a pan, and into this fat stir the flour. Pour 
this into the hot mixture, remove the bay leaf, and cook until the 
mixture thickens. Put the steaks into a baking dish, pour the sauce 
over them, and bake in a slow oven for about 45 minutes. Remove 
with the sauce to a hot platter and serve. 

47. Baked Fillets of Whitefish. — When whitefish of 
medium size can be secured, it is very often stuffed and baked whole, 
but variety can be had by cutting it into fillets before baking it. 
Besides producing a delicious dish, this method of preparation elimi- 
nates carving at the table, for the pieces can be cut the desired size 
for serving. 

Prepare fillets of whitefish according to the directions for filleting 
fish in Art. 28. Sprinkle each one with salt and pepper, and dip it 
first into beaten egg and then into bread crumbs. Brown some 
butter in a pan, place the fish into it, and set the pan in a hot oven. 
Bake until the fillets are a light brown, or about 30 minutes. Remove 
to a hot dish, garnish with parsley and serve with any desired sauce. 



FISH AND SHELL FISH 



27 



48. Fillet of Flounder. — In appearance, flounder is not so 
attractive as many other fish, but it is a source of excellent flesh and 







g 


F^ 


Hu '^■MHhPIHI 




S 


ip^ -««i^m^ 



is therefore much used. A very appetizing way in which to prepare 
flounder is to fillet it and prepare it according to the accompanying 
recipe, when it will appear as in Fig. 2L 

Secure a flounder and fillet it in the manner explained in Art. 28. 
Cut each fillet into halves, making eight pieces from one flounder. 
Cut small strips of salt pork or bacon, roll the pieces of flounder 
around these, and fasten with a toothpick. Place in a baking dish 
with a small quantity of water, and bake in a hot oven until a good 
brown. Serve hot. 

49. Planked Fish. — Like planked steak, planked fish, which 
is illustrated in Fig. 22, is a dish that appeals to the eye and pleases 



VPI 




4 






WKHK^^^^"^ 



the taste. The fish is baked on the plank and then surrounded with 
a border of potatoes, the fish and potatoes making an excellent food. 



28 FISH AND SHELL FISH §13 

To prepare planked fish, thoroughly clean and bone a medium- 
size whitefish, shad, haddock, or any desired fish. Grease a plank 
and place the fish on it. Lay some strips of bacon across the top 
of the fish, place in a hot oven, and bake for about 30 minutes or a 
little longer if necessary. Boil potatoes and prepare them for piping 
by mashing them, using 4 tablespoonfuls of milk, 1 tablespoonful of 
butter, and one egg to each 2 cupfuls of potato. Then, with a rosette 
pastry tube, pipe a border of potatoes around the edge of the plank, 
so that it will appear as in Fig. 22. Likewise, pipe rosettes of pota- 
toes on the strips of bacon placed on top of the fish. Then replace 
the plank with the fish and potatoes in the oven, and bake until the 
potatoes are brown. Garnish with parsley and serve. 

50. Fried Fisli. — Very small fish or slices of larger fish are 
often fried in deep fat. When they are prepared in this way, they 
are first dipped into beaten egg and then into crumbs or corn meal to 
form a coating that will cling to their surface. Coated with such 
a material, they are fried in deep fat until the surface is nicely 
browned. After being removed from the fat, they should be drained 
well before serving. 

51. Fried Perch. — When fried in deep fat, perch is found to 
be very appetizing. To prepare it in this way, secure a perch and 
scale and clean it. Cut it crosswise into 2-inch strips, roll each piece 
in flour, and fry in deep fat until nicely browned. Serve hot with 
lemon or with a sauce of some kind. 

52. Fried Eel. — If an appetizing way to cook eel is desired, 
it will be found advisable to fry it in deep fat. When it is to be 
cooked in this way, skin and clean the eel and cut it into thick slices. 
Pour some vinegar over the slices, sprinkle them with salt and 
pepper, and allow them to stand for several hours. Remove the 
pieces from the vinegar, dip each one into slightly beaten egg and 
then into flour, and fry in deep fat until well browned. Serve plain 
or with a sauce. 

53. Sauted Fish. — Without doubt, the most popular way to 
prepare fish is to saute them. This method may be applied to prac- 
tically the same kinds of fish that are fried or broiled, and it is 
especially desirable for the more tasteless varieties. It consists in 
browning the fish well in a small quantity of fat, first on one side 
and then on the other. If fat of s^ood flavor is used, such as bacon 



§13 



FISH AND SHELL FISH 



29 



or ham fat, the flavor of the fish will be very much improved. 
Before sauteing, the fish or pieces of fish are often dipped into 
slightly beaten egg and then rolled in flour, very fine cracker crumbs, 
or corn meal, or the egg is omitted and they are merely covered with 
the dry, starchy material. The effect of this method of cooking is 
very similar to that of deep-fat frying, except that the outside tissues 
are apt to become very hard from the application of the hot fat 
because of the coating that is generally used. Since most fish breaks 
very easily, it is necessary that it be handled carefully in this method 
in order that the pieces may be kept whole. 

54. Sauted Smelts. — To be most satisfactory, smelts are 
generally sauted, as shown in Fig. 23. Fish of this kind are pre- 
pared for cooking by cutting off the heads and removing the entrails 
through the opening thus made; or, if it is desired to leave the heads 




Fig. 23 

on, the entrails may be removed through the gill or a small slit cut 
below the mouth. At any rate, these fish are not cut open as are 
most other fish. 

With the fish thus prepared, roll them in fine cracker crumbs and 
saute them in melted butter until they are nicely browned. Serve 
with slices of lemon. 

55. Sauted Halibut Steak. — Slices of halibut, when firm in 
texture and cut about f inch thick, lend themselves very well to 
sauteing. Secure the required number of such slices and sprinkle 
each with salt and pepper. Then spread melted butter over each 
steak, and roll it in fine crumbs. Place fat in a frying pan, allow 
it to become hot, and saute the halibut in this until well browned. 

56. Sauted Pickerel. — A variety of fresh-water fish that finds 
favor with most persons is pickerel. Wlien this fish is to be sauted, 



30 FISH AND SHELL FISH §13 

scale and clean it and cut it crosswise into 2-inch strips. Then roll 
each piece in flour, sprinkle it with salt and pepper, and saute the 
slices in hot fat. When one side is sufficiently brown, turn and 
brown on the other side. 

57. Stewed Fish. — Like boiling, stewing extracts flavor and 
nutriment from fish. The process differs, however, in that the fish 
is cooked gently by simmering. This cookery method is employed 
for fish that is inclined to be tough. Usually, vegetables, such as 
carrots and onions, are cooked with the fish in order to impart flavor. 
To prevent the fish from falling apart, it may be wrapped in cheese- 
cloth or gauze. 

58. Stewed Fresli Herring-. — When fresh herring can be 
obtained, it can be made into a delicious dish by stewing it with 
onions, parsley, and carrots. In this method of preparation, the 
herring should not be permitted to stew rapidly ; it will become more 
tender if it simmers gently. As herring are rather small fish, weigh- 
ing only about ^ pound, it will usually be necessary to obtain more 
than one for a meal. 

Clean the required number of fresh herring, place them in a sauce- 
pan, and sprinkle them with salt and pepper. Brown some slices of 
onion in butter, and add the same number of slices of carrots and a 
generous quantity of parsley. Add enough boiling water to these 
vegetables to cover them and the f^h, and pour both over the fish. 
Place all on the fire and simmer gently until the fish is tender. 
Remove the fish from the water and serve. The vegetables are used 
merely to add flavor, and they will have practically boiled away by 
the time the fish is cooked. 

59. Stewed Eel. — Eel is delicious when stewed. When allowed 
to simmer slowly with several slices of onion and a little parsley, it 
becomes both tasty and tender. 

Skin and clean the eel that is to be stewed, remove all the fat, and 
cut into pieces about 2 inches long. Season well with salt and pepper 
and place in a saucepan with several slices of onion, 1 tablespoonful 
of chopped parsley, and 2 tablespoonfuls of butter. Add enough 
cold water to cover well, and allow the eel to simmer gently until it is 
tender enough to be pierced with a fork. Remove from the water 
and serve hot. 



§13 FTSH AND STTF.TJ. FTSTT ?A 



BECIPKS FOR SALT AND SMOKED FISH 

60. Place of Salt and Smoked Flsli in the Diet. — In 

regions where fresh fish cannot be obtained or in seasons when they 
are scarce everywhere, the housewife will do well to use salt and 
smoked fish. These varieties of fish not only will give her a chance 
to vary the diet, but will enable her to provide at a more economical 
price, food that, pound for pound, contains more nutriment than the 
same fish when fresh. While some of the varieties of smoked and 
salt fish may not be obtainable in all communities, the housewife will 
do much toward bringing the supply to her community by requesting 
them from the dealer. When a dealer knows that there is a demand 
for certain kinds, he will make an effort to secure the varieties 
wanted. 

61. Freshening- Salt and Smoked Fish. — The cooking of 
salt and smoked fish is not a difficult matter, but it always involves 
the freshening of the fish before any cooking method can be applied. 
This consists in placing the fish in a large quantity of water and 
allowing it to stand until enough of the salt has been extracted to 
suit the taste. Some kinds of fish are so salty that they require 
considerable soaking, whereas others require only a little freshening. 
However, it is usually advisable to change the water several times. 
If it is desired to hasten the extraction of the salt, the fish should 
be raised above the bottom of the vessel by means of a wire rack 
or several clean sticks. In the case of very thick fish, several gashes 
may be cut into the flesh to permit the salt to pass out more readily. 

62. Creamed Codfish. — Since codfish is a rather dry fish, 
containing little fat, it is usually combined with some other food to 
make it more appetizing. In the case of creamed codfish, the cream 
sauce supplies the food substances in which the fish is lacking and at 
the same time provides a very palatable dish. When codfish is pre- 
pared in this way, boiled potatoes are usually served with it. 

To make creamed codfish, freshen the required amount of codfish 
by pouring lukewarm water over it. Shred the fish by breaking it 
into small pieces with the fingers. Pour off the water, add fresh 
warm water, and allow the fish to stand until it is not too salty. 
When it is sufficiently freshened, drain off all the water. Melt a 
little butter in a frying pan, add the fish, and saute until slightly 



32 FISH AND SHELL FISH §13 

browned. Make a medium white sauce and pour it over the codfish. 
Serve hot with boiled potatoes. 

63. Codfish Balls. — Another excellent way in which to serve 
codfish is to combine it with mashed potatoes, make these into balls, 
and fry them in deep fat. These give variety to meals and also 
afiford an opportunity to serve a nutritious food. 

Freshen the codfish as explained in Art. 61, and then mince it 
very fine. Add an equal amount of freshly cooked hot potato that 
has been put through a potato ricer or mashed fine. Mix thoroughly 
and, if necessary, season with salt and pepper. Shape into balls and 
fry in deep fat. Drain well and serve hot. 

64. Sauted Salt Mackerel. — When an extremely tasty dish 
that will afiford a change from the usual daily routine of meals is 
desired, sauted salt mackerel will be found very satisfactory. 

Freshen salt mackerel that is to be sauted by putting it into a 
saucepan and covering it with cold water. Place this over the fire, 
and allow the water to heat to almost the boiling point. Pour ofif 
the water, and saute the fish in butter or other fat until nicely 
browned. If desired, pour a small amount of thin cream over the 
mackerel just before removing it from the pan, allow this to heat, 
and serve it as a sauce with the mackerel. 

65. Baked Finnan Haddie. — When haddock is cured by 
smoking, it is known as finnan haddie. As fish of this kind has con- 
siderable-thick flesh, it is very good for baking. Other methods of 
cookery may, of course, be applied to it, but none is more satisfac- 
tory than baking. 

To bake a finnan haddie, wash it in warm water and put it to soak 
in fresh warm water. After it has soaked for ^ hour, allow it to 
come gradually to nearly the boiling point and then pour ofif the 
water. Place the fish in a baking pan, add a piece of butter, sprinkle 
with pepper, and pour a little water over it. Bake in a hot oven 
until it is nicely browned. Serve hot. 

66. Creamed Finnan Haddie. — The flavor of finnan haddie 
is such that this fish becomes very appetizing when prepared with a 
cream sauce. If, after combining the sauce with the fish, the fish is 
baked in the oven, an especially palatable dish is the result. 

To prepare creamed finnan haddie, freshen the fish and shred it into 
small pieces. Then measure the fish, put it into a baking dish, and 



§13 FISH AND SHFXT. FISH 33 

pour an equal amount of white sauce over it. Sprinkle generously 
with crumbs and bake in a hot oven until the crumbs are browned. 
Serve hot. 

67. Boiled Salmon. — When smoked salmon can be secured, 
it makes a splendid fish for boiling. If it is cooked until tender and 
then served with a well-seasoned sauce, it will find favor with most 
persons. 

Freshen smoked salmon in warm water as much as seems neces- 
sary, remembering that the cooking to which it will be subjected will 
remove a large amount of the superfluous salt. Cover the salmon 
with hot water, and simmer slowly until it becomes tender. Remove 
from the water, pour a little melted butter over it, and serve with 
any desired sauce. 

RECIPES FOR CANNED FISH 

68. Canned Fish in the Diet. — As a rule, canned fish is a 
comparatively cheap food and there is no reason why the economical 
housewife should not make frequent use of the various kinds. It 
should be bought, however, from a reputable firm, in order that the 
greatest value may be obtained for the money spent. In addition, it 
should be used as soon as possible after the can has been opened ; 
if all of it cannot be utilized at one time, it should be placed in a 
covered receptacle — not a metal one — and kept cold to prevent it 
from spoiling. Often canned fish can be served without any further 
preparation than removing it from the can. However, as some 
varieties, particularly salmon and tuna fish, are much used in the 
preparation of both cold and cooked dishes, several recipes are here 
given for these varieties. 

69. Creamed Tuna Fish. — Combining tuna fish with a cream 
sauce and serving it over toast makes a dish that is both delicate and 
palatable — one that will prove very satisfactory when something to 
take the place of meat in a light meal is desired. 

Creamed Tuna Fish 

(Sufficient to Serve Six) 

3 Tb. butter -J tsp. paprika 

3 Tb. flour l^c. hot milk 

I' tsp. salt 1^ c. tuna fish 

8 tsp. pepper 1 egg 

Melt the butter in a saucepan and add the flour, salt, pepper, and 

paprika. Stir well, pour in the milk, and when this has thickened 



34 



FISH AND SHELL FISH 



§!•> 



add the tuna fish. Allow this to heat thoroughly in the sauce. Just 
before serving, add the slightly beaten egg and cook until this has 
thickened. Pour over toast and serve. 

70. Salmon Mold. — A change from the usual way of serving 
salmon can be had by making a salmon mold such as is illustrated in 
Fig. 24. Besides being a delicious dish and providing variety in the 
diet, salmon mold is very attractive. 

Salmon Mold 

(Sufficient to Serve Six) 

2 c. salmon i tsp. pepper 

2 Tb. vinegar 1 Tb. gelatine 

^ tsp. salt U c. boiling water 

Remove all skin and bones from the salmon when it is taken from 
the can, and mince it thoroughly with a fork. Add the vinegar, salt, 




and pepper. Prepare the gelatine by dissolving it in the boiling 
water. Add the seasoned salmon to the prepared gelatine. With 
cold water, wet a ring-shaped mold having an open space in the 
center. Pour the salmon-and-gelatine mi::ture into this mold, and 
allow it to stand until it solidifies. Arrange a bed of lettuce leaves 
on a chop plate, turn the mold out on this, and fill the center with 
dressing. Serve at once. A very desirable dressing for this purpose 
is made as follows : 

Dressing for Salmon Mold 

1 c. cream 2 Tb. sugar 

2 Tb. vinegar 1 c. finely chopped cucumber 
I tsp. salt 

Whip the cream until it is stiflf, and add the vinegar, salt, and 
sugar. Fold into this the finely chopped cucumber. 



§ 13 FISH AND SHELL FISH 35 

71. Salmon Patties. — Delicious patties can be made from 
salmon by combining it with bread crumbs and using a thick white 
sauce to hold the ingredients together. These may be either sauted 
in shallow fat or fried in deep fat. 

Salmon Patties 
(Sufficient to Serve Eight) 

2 c. finely minced salmon ^ tsp. salt 

1 c. fresh bread crumbs i tsp. pepper 

1 c. thick white sauce Dry bread crumbs 

With the salmon, mix the fresh bread crumbs and the white sauce. 
Season with salt and pepper. Shape into round patties, roll in the 
dry bread crumbs, and fry in deep fat or saute in shallow fat. Serve 
hot with or without sauce. 

72. Creamed Salmon With Rice. — A creamed protein dish 
is always more satisfactory if it is served on some other food, par- 
ticularly one high in carbohydrate. When this is done, a better 
balanced dish is the result. Creamed salmon and rice make a very 
nutritious and appetizing combination. 

Creamed Salmon With Rice 

(Sufficient to Serve Six) 

1 c. salmon Steamed rice 

1 c. medium white sauce 
Break the salmon into moderately small pieces and carefully fold 
these into the hot white sauce. Serve this on a mound of hot 
steamed rice. 



RECIPES FOR LEFT-OVER FISH 

73. So as not to waste any food material, it is necessary that 
all left-over fish be utilized in some way. This is not so simple a 
matter as in the case of meat, because fish is one of the foods that 
are not popular as a left-over dish. Still fish left-overs can be used 
if a little thought is given to the matter. Of course, it is a wise plan 
to prepare only the quantity of fish that can be consumed at the meal 
for which it is cooked, but should any remain it should not be 
thrown away, for some use can be made of it. A point to remember, 
however, is that fish is not satisfactory in soup of any kind except a 
fish soup ; therefore, bits of left-over fish may be added to only such 
soups as clam chowder or other fish chowder. 

Whether the fish has been boiled, steamed, baked, fried, sauted, 
or prepared in any other way, it may always be made into croquettes. 
When used for this purpose, all the bones should be carefully 

WI-C3-16 



36 FISH AND SHELL FISH §13 

removed. These may be easily taken out after the fish has become 
cold. If the fish has been stuffed and part of the stuffing remains, 
it may be broken into pieces and used with the flesh of the fish. A 
recipe for croquettes in which fish is combined with rice follows. 

74. Fisli Croquettes. — If any quantity of left-over fish is on 
hand, it may be combined with rice to make very tasty croquettes. 

Fish Croquettes 

(Sufficient to Serve Six) 

lie. cold fish Salt and pepper 

1 c. cold steamed rice 1 egg 

1 c. thick white sauce Crumbs 

Mince the fish into small pieces, mix with the rice, and add the 
white sauce. Season with salt and pepper and shape into croquettes. 
Dip into slightly beaten egg, roll in crumbs, and fry in deep fat. 
Drain and serve with any desired sauce. 

75. Creamed Fisli in Potato Nest. — Fish may also be com- 
bined with mashed potato to produce a most appetizing dish. Line 
a baking dish with hot mashed potato, leaving a good-sized hollow 
in the center. Into this pour creamed fish made by mixing equal 
proportions of left-over cold fish and white sauce. Season well with 
salt and pepper, sprinkle with crumbs, and dot the top with butter. 
Bake until the crumbs are brown. Serve hot. 



SHELL FISH 



NATURE, VARIETIES, AND USE OF SHELL FISH 

76. Besides the varieties of fish that have already been con- 
sidered, the general term fish also includes shell fish. Fish of this 
kind are different in structure from bony fish, for they are acquatic 
animals that are entirely or partly encased in shells. They include 
moUiisks, or bivalves, such as oysters, clams, and scallops, and 
crustaceans, such as lobsters, crabs, and shrimp. 

77. The popularity of the edible varieties of mollusks and crus- 
taceans mentioned depends largely on whether they can be easily 
obtained and whether they are pleasing to the local or individual 
taste. As they are found in salt rivers, bays, and other shallow salt- 
water sources, their greatest use is among people living near the 
seashore, but they are much favored where they can be procured in 



§13 FISH AND SHELL FISH 37 

edible condition. They are not so cheap as many other fish foods ; 
that is, a certain amount of money will not purchase so great a quan- 
tity of shell fish, lobster for instance, as some of the well-known 
varieties of fish proper, such as halibut or whitefish. Lobsters and 
crabs are usually more expensive than oysters and clams ; conse- 
quently, they are used more often to provide a delicacy or to supply 
something more or less uncommon for a special meal. 

78. Several precautions should be observed in purchasing shell 
fish. For instance, crabs and lobsters should be purchased alive. 
They are usually shipped on ice so that they will remain in this con- 
dition for some time, and they are displayed on ice in the markets 
for the same reason. Such shell fish should be kept alive until they 
are plunged into boiling water to cook. Oysters and clams 
bought in the shell must also be alive when purchased. A tightly 
closed shell indicates that they are alive, whereas a slightly open 
shell proves that they are dead. If these two varieties are bought 
out of the shells, the fish themselves should not be accompanied by 
a great quantity of liquid. Considerable liquid is an indication that 
the oysters or clams have been adulterated by the addition of water. 
Formerly it was the custom to keep oysters in fresh water, as 
the water they absorb bloats or fattens them. This practice, how- 
ever, has fallen into disfavor. 

79. Shell fish lend themselves admirably to a large variety of 
dishes, including soups, entrees, salads, and substitutes for meat 
dishes. They possess a great deal of distinctive flavor, their food 
value is comparatively high, and, provided they are in good condi- 
tion and are properly prepared, they are healthful and easily 
digested. It can therefore be seen that shell fish have much to 
recommend their use. There is considerable danger, however, in 
using any varieties that are not perfectly fresh or freshly cooked. 
In the case of mollusks, or bivalves, much harm has resulted from 
the use of those which have been grown or bred in unsanitary sur- 
roundings. Because of these facts, it is of the utmost importance 
that great care be exercised in selecting and preparing shell fish. 

80. Composition and Food Value of Shell Fish. — In 

composition, the varieties of fish included under shell fish do not 
differ greatly from fish proper. Most of them, however, contain 
more waste and less of the food substances than fish, so that their 



38 



FISH AND SHELL FISH 



§13 



food value is somewhat lower. Table IV will serve to give a good 
idea of the composition and food value of the several varieties of 
shell fish, and in studying it, a good plan will be to compare it with 
Table I, which gives the food value of fish. As will be observed, 

TABLE IV 

COMPOSITIOX AND FOOD VALUE OF SHELL. FISH 



Name of Fish 


Water 


Trotem 


Fat 


Total 
Carbo- 
hydrates 


Ash 


Food 
Value 

per 
Pound 
Calories 


Clams, removed from 
shell 


80.8 
77.1 
79.2 
86.9 
80.3 


10.6 
16.6 

16.4 
6.2 
14.8 


1.1 
2.0 

1.8 
1.2 
.1 


5.2 
1.2 
.4 

3.4 


2.3 
3.1 
2.2 
2.0 
1.4 


340 




415 


Lobsters, whole 

Oysters, in shell 

Scallops 


390 

235 
345 







protein forms a very large proportion of the food substance of shell 
fish. Also, they contain more carbohydrates than fish, the amount 
ranging from .4 to 5.2 per cent., which is in the form of sugar. 

TABLE V 
seasons for shell, fish 

Name of Fish Season 

Clams, hard shelled All the year 

Clams, soft shelled May 1 to October IS 

Crabs, hard shelled All the year 

Crabs, soft shelled March 1 to October 15 

Lobsters All the year 

Oysters September 1 to May 1 

Scallops September 15 to April 1 

„. . \ March 15 to June 1, and 

[ September IS to October IS 

Although this amount is too sitiall to warrant much consideration as 
a supply of carbohydrates, it is mentioned because it is an interest- 
ing fact. 

81. Seasons for Shell Fisli.' — With the exception of clams 
and lobster, which can be obtained all the year around, shell fish 
have particular seasons ; that is, there is a certain time of the year 



§13 



FISH AxND SHELL FISH 



39 



when they are not suitable for food. It is very important that every 
housewife know just what these seasons are, so that she will not 
include the foods in the diet of her family when they should not be 
used. Table V, which will furnish her with the information she 
needs, sh )uld therefore be carefully studied. 



OYSTERS, CLAMS, AND SCALLOPS 



OYSTERS AND THEIR PREPARATION 

82. Oysters, clams, and scallops are salt-water fish that 
belong to the family of mollusks, or soft-bodied animals. They are 
entirely encased in hard shells, which, though of the same general 




shape, differ somewhat from each other in appearance. Fig. 25 
shows a group of oysters and clams, the three on the left being 
oysters and the three on the right, clams. Oysters are larger than 
clams and have a rough, uneven shell, whereas clams have a smooth, 
roundish shell. The three varieties of mollusks are closely related 
in their composition and in their use as food, but as oysters are 
probably used more commonly than the others they are considered 
first. 



83. Composition of Oysters. — Oysters occupy a prominent 
place among animal foods, because they are comparatively high in 
protein. In addition, they contain a substance that most flesh foods 
lack in any quantity, namely, carbohydrate in the form of glycogen, 
and for this reason are said to resemble milk closely in composition. 



Carbo- 
hydrate 

5.0 


Mineral 

Salts 

.7 


3.7 


2.0 



40 FISH AND SHELL FISH §13 

A comparison of the following figures will show how these foods 
resemble each other : 

Water Protein Fat 

Milk 87.0 3.3 4.0 

Oysters 86.9 6.2 1.2 

Oysters, as will be observed, contain only a small quantity of fat, 
and for this reason their total food value is somewhat lower than 
that of milk. A pint of milk has a value of 325 calories, while the 
same quantity of oysters has an approximate value of only 250 
calories. Because of the difference in the cost of these two foods, 
oysters costing several times as much as milk, the use of oysters is 
not so cheap a way of supplying food material. 

84. Digestibility of Oysters. — When merely the ability of 
the digestive tract to handle oysters is taken into consideration, they 
are said to be easily digested if they are served raw or are properly 
prepared. This is due to the fact that when taken as a food they 
are disposed of in a comparatively short time by the stomach. In 
addition, their absorption from the alimentary tract is quite com- 
plete ; that is, they contain little or no waste material. But, just as 
cooking has much to do with the digestibility of other protein foods, 
so it has with oysters. For this reason, the housewife who wishes 
to feed her family this food in its most digestible form must thor- 
oughly understand all phases of its cooking. 

85. Healthf ulness of Oysters. — Much illness has been attrib- 
uted to oysters, and without doubt they have been the cause of 
some typhoid and some ptomaine poisoning. A knowledge of the 
reason for these diseases has done much to eliminate them. It 
is now definitely known that much of the typhoid caused from eat- 
ing oysters was due to the conditions under which they were grown. 
In their growth, oysters fasten themselves to stationary things, 
such as rocks or piles driven into the ground underneath the water, 
and they obtain their food by simply opening the shell and making 
use of minute particles of plant and animal life that they are able 
to extract from the water. When the water was not clean or when 
sewage was turned into it, typhoid germs were transmitted to per- 
sons who took oysters as food. At present, there is scarcely any 
danger from such causes, for more care is now given* to the condi- 
tions under which oysters grow. Ptomaine poisoning from oysters 



§13 FISH AND SHELL FISH 41 

was caused by eating them when they had been improperly cared for 
in storage or had been taken from the shells after they were dead. 
Unless persons handling oysters know how to take care of them, this 
danger is still likely to exist. 

86. Purchasing Oysters. — To be able to purchase oysters 
intelligently, the housewife should be familiar with the names of the 
various kinds. These names are dependent on the locality from 
which the oysters come, and include Bine Points, Cape Cods, Cottiits, 
Lynn Havens, and numerous other varieties. It should be remem- 
bered that the varieties raised in different localities are quite dis- 
tinctive, differing to some extent in both size and appearance. Unless 
the purchaser is familiar with the different varieties, almost any of 
the small oysters are likely to be sold to her for one of the small 
varieties and, likewise, any of the large oysters for one of the large 
varieties. While this is of small consequence, provided the quality 
is satisfactory and the price is right, it is well for every housewife 
to familiarize herself with the names of the various kinds, so that 
she may know just what variety she is purchasing. 

87. When oysters are bought in the shell, they should be alive, 
a fact that can be determined by the tightly closed shell, as has 
already been stated. If the shells are not closed or can be easily 
pried apart, it may be known that the oysters are not good and that 
they should be rejected. When it is possible to procure them, 
oysters that have been removed from the shells immediately after 
l)eing taken from the beds are preferable to those which have not 
been removed from the shells before shipping. When purchased 
out of the shells, oysters should be grayish in color, should have no 
disagreeable odor, and should contain no excess water or liquid. 
After being purchased, oysters should be kept on ice unless they can 
be cooked at once. 

The season for oysters is from September to April, inclusive. 
While in some localities they can be purchased at other times during 
the year, they are not likely to be so good. In fact, it is not safe to 
use oysters during the warm months. 

88. Important Points in Cooking- Oysters. — The protein 
of oysters, like that found in other foods, is coagulated by heat. Long 
heat, provided it is sufficiently intense, makes oysters tough, and in 
this condition they are neither agreeable to eat nor readily digested. 
When they are to be cooked at a high temperature, therefore, the 



42 



FISH AND SHELL FISH 



13 



cooking should be done quickly. If they are to be cooked at a tem- 
perature below the boiling point, they may be subjected to heat for 
a longer time without becoming so tough as when a high tem- 
perature is used. Cooking quickly at a high temperature, how- 
ever, is preferable in most cases to long, slow cooking. For example, 
in the preparation of oyster stew, long cooking produces no better 
flavor than short cooking at a high temperature and renders oysters 
far less digestible. 



89. Opening: Oysters. — Unless oysters are bought already 
opened, it becomes necessary to open them in the home before they 
can be served raw or cooked. To open oysters is not difficult, and 
with a little experience the work can be done with ease. It will be 

M'ell to note that the 

two shells of an oyster, 
which are called z'alvcs, 
are held together by a 
single muscle, known as 
the adductor muscle, 
that lies near the center, 
and that this muscle 
must be cut before the 
shell will open readily. 
Before attempting to 
open oysters, however, 
they should be scrubbed 
with clean water, so as to remove any sand that may be on the shells. 
When the oysters are cleaned, proceed to open them in the manner 
shown in Figs. 26 and 27. First, as in Fig. 26, insert the point of a 
knife into the hinged, or pointed, end and push the blade between 
the valves until they appear to separate, when it will be known that 
the muscle has been cut. Then, as in Fig. 27, lay the valves open 
and loosen the oyster from the shell by slipping the knife under it. 
If the oysters that are being opened are to be cooked before serv- 
ing, simply drop them with their liquid into a suitable vessel and dis- 
card the shells. Before using the oysters, remove them from the 
liquid, look them over carefully to see that no small particles of 
shells cling to them, and wash them in clean, cold water to remove 
any sand that may be present. Also, strain the liquid through a 
cloth, so that it will be free from sand when used in the preparation 




§13 



FISH AND SHELL FISH 



43 



of the dish for which the oysters are to be used or for the making 
of soup or broth. 

Oysters that are to be eaten raw are frequently served on the half 
shell. Therefore, if they are to be used in this way, place each 
oyster, as it is loosened in the process of opening, into the deeper 
shell, as Fig. 27 shows, and discard the other one. Very often good- 
looking oyster shells are saved in order that they may be used from 
time to time in serving raw oysters that are bought already opened. 

90. Raw Oysters.^ — When an appetizer is desired in a meal 
that is to consist of several courses, raw oysters are often used for 
the first course. Oysters that are to be eaten raw may be served 
in the shells or removed from them. They are bland in flavor, 




Fig. 27 

however, and require some sharp, highly seasoned sauce in order to 
give them sufficient snap. The sauces commonly used for this pur- 
pose include cocktail sauce, chilli sauce, catsup, horseradish, and 
tobasco sauce. Sometimes, though, lemon juice or vinegar and pep- 
per and salt are preferred to sauce. Asa rule, crisp crackers, small 
squares of toast, or wafers and butter accompany raw oysters in 
any form, and sometimes celery and radishes are served, too. 

91. When a cocktail sauce is served with raw oysters, they are 
generally referred to as oyster cocktails. Two methods of serv- 
ing these are in practice. In one, as shown in Fig. 28, the cocktail 
sauce is put into a small glass placed in the center of a soup plate 
filled with cracked ice, and the oysters, usually six in half shells, are 



44 



FISH AND SHELL FISH 



13 



arranged around the glass, on the ice In the other, as shown in 
Fig. 29, the desired number of oysters that have been removed from 
the shells are dropped into a stemmed glass containing the cocktail 




sauce, and the glass is placed in a bowl of cracked ice. An oyster 
fork, which is a small, three-pronged fork, is always served with 
raw oysters, and usually a piece of lemon is supplied in addition to 
the cocktail sauce. 

92. Oyster Stew. — If an extremely nutritious way of prepar- 
ing oysters is desired, oyster stew should be selected. This is per- 
haps the simplest way in which to cook oysters, and yet care must 




be exercised in making this dish, for the oysters should not be 
cooked too long and the milk, which must be brought to the boiling 
point, should not be allowed to burn. Oyster stew makes an excel- 



§13 FISH AND SHELL FISH 45 

lent dish for lunch. It should not be served as the first course of a 
heavy meal because of the large amount of nutriment it contains. 
Oyster Stew 

(Sufficient to Serve Six) 

1 qt. oysters 1 tsp. salt 

1 qt. milk i tsp. pepper 

2 Tb. butter 

Pour 1 cupful of water over the oysters, look them over carefully, 
and remove any pieces of shell that may cling to the oysters, making 
sure that any particles of sand are washed off. Heat this liquid to 
the boiling point and then strain it through a cloth. Put the milk 
on the fire to heat, and when hot, add the butter, salt, and pepper, 
and strained liquid. After the whole mixture has come to the boil- 
ing point, pour in the oysters and cook until they look plump and the 
edges begin to curl. Remove from the heat and serve with crisp 
crackers. 

93. Creamed. Oysters. — Another nutritious way in which to 
l)repare oysters and at the same time produce a dish that is pleasing 
to most persons is to cream them. After being creamed, oysters 
may be served over toast or in timbale cases. 

Creamed Oysters 
(Sufficient to Serve Six) 

2 Tb. butter Salt and pepper 

24 oysters 6 slices toast or 6 timbale 

1 J c. medium white sauce cases 

Melt the butter in a frying pan, add the oysters, and heat them in 
the butter until the edges begin to curl slightly. Pour the hot oysters 
into the hot white sauce, season to taste with salt and pepper, and 
serve over toast or in timbale cases. 

94. Scalloped Oysters. — No food makes a more palatable 
scalloped dish than oysters. Oysters so prepared are liked by nearly 
every one, and the ingredients with which they are combined help 
to give such a dish balance so far as the food substances are con- 
cerned. Care should be taken, however, in the baking of scalloped 
oysters, for they are likely to become tough if they are cooked too 
long. 

Scalloped Oysters 

(Sufficient to Serve Six) 

1 c. bread crumbs 1 pt. oysters 

2 Tb. butter Salt and pepper 
1 c. cracker crumbs 1 c. milk 



46 FISH AND SHELL FISH §13 

Butter the bread crumbs with the butter, and then mix them with 
the cracker crumbs. Sprinkle the bottom of a greased baking dish 
with one-fourth of the crumbs, and over this put a layer of oysters 
that have been previously cleaned. Sprinkle with salt and pepper 
and add one-fourth more of the crumbs. Add another layer of 
oysters, sprinkle with salt and pepper, and place the remainder of 
the crumbs on top. Strain the liquid from the oysters through a 
piece of cloth, mix this with the milk, and pour over the dish thus 
prepared. Place in a hot oven, and bake until the mixture is thor- 
oughly heated and the top is brown. 

95. Fried Oysters. — Of all the dishes prepared from oysters, 
fried oysters undoubtedly find favor with the greatest number of 
persons. However, unless care is taken in frying the oysters, they 
are likely to be somewhat indigestible. Deep fat should be used for 
this purpose, and it should be hot enough to brown a 1-inch cube of 
bread a golden brown in 40 seconds. 

Fried Oysters 

( Sufficient to Serve Six) 

24 large oysters Fine cracker crumbs 

1 egg Salt 

J c. milk Pepper 

Thoroughly dry the oysters by laying them on one end of a soft 
cloth and patting them with the other. Beat the egg and add the 
milk to it. Dip the oysters into the cracker crumbs, then into the 
egg-and-milk mixture, and again into the crumbs. Fry in deep fat 
until brown. Remove from the fat, drain well, and place on oiled 
paper. Sprinkle with salt and pepper and serve hot. 

96. Oyster Pie. — Baking oysters into a pie is another means 
of combining a protein food with foods that are high in other food 
substances. As oyster pie is somewhat hearty, it may be used as the 
main dish of a heavy meal. 

Oyster Pie 

(Sufficient to Serve Six) 

1 pt. oysters Salt and pepper 

1 c. medium white sauce Baking-powder biscuit dough 

Cut each of the oysters into three or four pieces, and place them 
in a greased baking dish. Pour over them the hot white sauce and 
the juice from the oysters. Season with salt and pepper. Over the 
top, place a layer of the biscuit dough rolled about j inch thick. Set 
in a hot oven and bake until the crust is brown. 



§ 13 FISH AND SHELL FISH 47 

97. Pigs in Blankets.' — When something entirely different in 
the way of oysters is desired, pigs in blankets should be tried. This 
is a very good name for the dish given in the accompanying recipe, 
for the oysters are rolled up in a strip of bacon, which serves as a 
blanket. They are especially suitable for a light meal, such as lun- 
cheon or a dainty lunch that is to be served to company. 

Pigs in Blankets 

(Sufficient to Serve Six) 

18 large oysters 18 thin strips of bacon 

After the oysters have been cleaned, roll each one in a strip of 
bacon. Fasten the bacon where the edges meet by running a tooth- 
pick through at this ix)int. Place in a broiler and broil on one side 
until brown ; then turn them and broil until the other side is brown. 
Serve hot. 

98. Oyster Fritters.- — Variety may also be secured in the use 
of oysters by making oyster fritters. When such fritters are nicely 
browned and served with an appetizing sauce, an attractive as well 
as a tasty dish is the result. 

Oyster Fritters 

(Sufficient to Serve Six) 

1 pt. oysters 1-egg muffin batter 

Clean the oysters and cut each into four or five pieces. IVIake a 
one-egg muffin batter and to it add the cut oysters. Drop the mix- 
ture by spoonfuls into deep fat and fry until brow^n. Remove from 
the fat, drain, and sprinkle with salt and pepper. Serve with a 
desired sauce. 



CLAMS AND THEIR PREPARATION 

99. Nature and Digestibility of Clams. — Clams are 
bivalves similar to oysters in both form and composition. Because 
of the similarity in composition, they are utilized in much the same 
ways as oysters, being used extensively for food in parts of the 
country where the supply is large. There are numerous varieties of 
clams, and some of them differ slightly from each other in appear- 
ance, color, and flavor. Preference for the different varieties is 
largely a matter of individual taste. 

Clams may be purchased loose or in the shell and they may be 
served in or out of the shell. However, when bought in the shell, 
they must be purchased alive and must be subjected to the same tests 
as are oysters. As in the case of oysters, they may be eaten raw or 



48 FISH AND SHELL FISH §13 

cooked. Their preparation for cooking is similar to that of oysters. 
In the raw state, they are easily digested, but upon the application 
of heat they become tough, and the longer they are cooked, the 
tougher they become. It can therefore be seen that the digestibility 
of clams is influenced very much by cooking. 

100. Opening- Clams. — If clams are to be opened in the 
home, the method illustrated in Fig. 30 may be employed. First 
wash the clams to remove the sand, and then place a clam on a hard 
surface so that the pointed edge is up. Insert the thin edge of a 
knife into the very slight groove between the shells, or valves, and 
with a heavy utensil of some kind strike the top of the knife several 




Fig. 30 

times so as to separate the valves. Then, as in opening oysters, 
spread the shells apart, as shown, and loosen the clam from the shell 
it adheres to. 

101. Ra-w Clams. — Like oysters, raw clams are generally 
served as a cocktail, or an appetizer, at the beginning of a meal. If 
they are to be served in the half shell, place them in a dish of cracked 
ice ; if they are to be served without the shells, place the required 
number in a stemmed glass that is set in a dish of cracked ice. In 
either case, lemon or a suitable sauce, or both, should be supplied. 

102. Steamed Clams. — Steaming is the method generally 
adopted when clams in large numbers are cooked for a "clam bake," 
but there is no reason why it cannot be used by the housewife when 
she wishes to cook only enough for her family. When large quan- 
tities are to be steamed, use is generally made of a steamer, but the 



§13 FISH AND SHELL FISH 49 

housewife will find that she can steam a few clams very satisfac- 
torily in a saucepan or a similar vessel. 

To prepare steamed clams, scrub the shells of the clams until they 
are perfectly clean. Place the desired number thus cleaned in a 
saucepan and add enough water to cover the bottom of the pan about 
1 inch. Allow this to cook until the shells of the clams open. 
Remove the clams from the pan and serve them in the shells. Pro- 
vide each person with a small dish of melted butter into which to 
dip the clams as they are removed from the shells to be eaten. The 
liquid found in the clams may be poured from the shell before the 
clams are served, and after being well seasoned may be served as 
clam broth. 

103. Baked Clams. — Another very appetizing way in which 
to prepare clams is to combine them with bread crumbs, season 
them well, and then bake them until they are well browned. Select 
several good-sized clams for each person to be served. Scrub the 
shells well and open them. Remove the clams and chop them into 
small pieces. To each cupful of chopped clams, add 2 cupfuls of 
buttered bread crumbs, 1 tablespoon ful of chopped parsley, 1 table- 
spoonful of chopped pimiento, and 1 tablespoonful of onion juice. 
Season the mixture with salt and pepper and fill the shells with it. 
Place these in a shallow pan and bake in a very hot oven until the 
crumbs are well browned on top. Serve hot. 

104. Fried Clams.. — As oysters make a very desirable dish 
when fried in deep fat, so clams may be treated in this way, too. 
Remove the desired number of clams from the shells, wash them 
thoroughly, and dry them on a clean towel. Dip them into beaten 
egg, and finally into the crumbs. Fry in deep fat until they are a 
golden brown. Serve with slices of lemon. 



SCALLOPS AND THKIR PREPARATIOX 

105. Nature of Scallops. — Scallops, which are another form 
of bivalves, are less commonly used for food than oysters and clams. 
Scalloped dishes get their name from the fact that scallop shells 
were originally used for their preparation. Not all of the scallop 
is used for food ; merely the heavy muscle that holds the two shells 
together is edible. Scallops are slightly higher in protein than 
oysters and clams and they also have a higher food value than these 



50 FISH AND SHELL FISH §13 

two molliisks. The most common method of preparation for scallops 
is to fry them, but they may also be baked in the shells. 

106. Fried Scallops. — If scallops are properly fried, they 
make an appetizing dish. As they are a rather bland food, a sauce 
of some kind, preferably a sour one, is generally served with them. 

Select the desired number of scallops and wash thoroughly. Dip 
first into either fine bread crumbs or cracker crumbs, then into 
beaten egg, and again into the crumbs. Fry in deep fat until a 
golden brown, remove, and drain. Serve with lemon or a sour 
sauce, such as horseradish or tomato sauce. 

107. Baked Scallops. — If a tasty as well as a slightly unusual 
dish is desired to give variety to the diet, baked scallops will undoubt- 
edly find favor. As shown in the accompanying recipe, mushrooms 
are one of the ingredients in baked scallops and these not only pro- 
vide additional material, but improve the flavor. 

To prepare baked scallops, clean the desired number, parboil for 
15 minutes, drain, and cut into small pieces. For each cupful of 
scallops, melt 2 tablespoonfuls of butter in a frying pan, saute in it 
1 tablespoonful of chopped onion, and add ^ cupful of chopped 
mushrooms. When these have browned, add 2 tablespoonfuls of 
flour and 1 cupful of milk. Cook until thick and then add the 
scallops. Fill the scallop shells with the mixture, sprinkle with 
buttered bread crumbs, place in the oven, and bake until the crumbs 
are brown. 



LOBSTERS, CRABS, AND SHRIMP 



GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS 

108. The shell fish, lobsters, crabs, and shrimp, come under 
the head of crustaceans ; that is, animals consisting of jointed sec- 
tions, each of which is covered with a hard shell. Their flesh is 
similar in composition to that of other fish, but it is tougher and 
harder to digest. However, it is popular because of its unique and 
delicate flavor. In fact, whenever these varieties of fish can be 
obtained along the seacoast or within a reasonable distance from the 
place where they are caught, they are considered a delicacy. If they 
can be shipped alive to any point, they are perfectly safe to use, 
although quite high in price because of their perishable nature. 



§13 FISH AND SHELL FISH 51 

109. Unless such shell fish can be procured alive in the markets, 
the use of a good brand of any of them canned is recommended. 
In fact, canned lobster, crab, and shrimp are very satisfactory and 
may be substituted for any of the fresh cooked varieties in the 
recipes that follow. It is true that some persons object to canned 
food because ptomaine poisoning sometimes results, but it has been 
found that ptomaine poisoning is more liable to result from eating 
these foods when they are bought in the market in poor condition 
than when they are secured in canned form. Care must be exer- 
cised, however, whenever use is made of canned food of any kind. 
Upon opening a can of any of these varieties of fish, the entire con- 
tents should be removed from the can at once and used as soon as 
possible. It must be remembered that the ptomaine poisoning that 
is sometimes caused by eating canned foods is not due to the fact 
that the foods come in tin cans, but that they are allowed to stand 
in the cans after they are opened. Upon their being exposed to the 
air, putrefaction sets in and causes the harmful efifect. 

110. Lobsters, crabs, and shrimp are very similar in composi- 
tion, shrimp being slightly higher in protein and total food value than 
the others. If they are not prepared in an indigestible way, they are 
comparatively easy to digest. It has been proved a fallacy that 
lobster and ice cream are a dangerous combination, for if both are 
in good condition they may be combined with no ill effects to the 
normal individual. 



LOBSTERS AXD THEIR PREPARATION 

111. Distinguishing Features. — Of these three types of 
sea food, lobsters are perhaps the most popular. They are found 
along the North Atlantic and North Pacific seacoasts. Alive, they 
are mottled bluish-green in color, but upon being cooked they change 
to bright red. As soon as they are caught, many of them are packed 
in ice and shipped alive to various points, while others are plunged 
immediately into boiling water and sold cooked. A live lobster 
ready for cooking is shown in Fig. 31. Lobsters vary greatly in 
size. Only those 9 inches or more in length can be sold, the smaller 
ones being thrown back into the water. When they are purchased 
either raw or cooked, they should be heavy for their size ; that 
is, they should be heavy because of their plumpness and good 
condition. 

WI-C3— 17 



52 



FISH AND SHELL FISH 



13 



112. Preliminary Preparation. — To prepare a lobster, 
which should be aHve, grasp it firmly by the back, as shown in 




Fig. 32, plunge it quickly, head first, into a kettle of rapidly boiling 
water, and then submerge the rest of the body. Be sure to have a 
sufficient amount of water to cover the lobster completely. Boil 
rapidly for 5 minutes ; then lower the flame or remove to a cooler 
part of the stove and cook slowly for -J hour. Remove from the 
water and allow to cool. 

After being prepared in this way, a lobster may be served cold or 
it may be used in the preparation of various made dishes. If it is 

to be used without fur- 
ther preparation, it is 
often served from the 
shell, which is usually 
split open. Mayonnaise 
or some other sauce is 
generally served with 
lobster. The flesh is re- 
moved from the shell 
with a small fork as it 
is eaten. 

113. Removing 

Lobster From the 

Shell . — The ma j or ity 

Df the dishes made from 

lobster require that the 

^''*^' ^^ flesh be removed from 

the shell. To do this, first pull off the two large claws and the 

four pairs of small claws, as shown in Fig. 25, and break the tail 




in 



FISH AND SHELL FLSH 



53 



from the body. Then with scissors, as in Fig. 34, cut a single slit 
the entire length of the shell covering the under part of the tail and 




Fig. a 

remove the flesh inside the tail in a whole, large piece, as shown in 
Fig. 35. The intestinal tract, which can be readily observed, will 
be found embedded in this piece and running the entire length. 
Slash the flesh and remove it. Next remove the flesh of the body 
from the shell, retaining only that part which appears to be fibrous, 
like the flesh of the tail. The stomach, which is called "the lady" 
because its inside ap- 
pearance closely resem- 
bles a lady sitting in a 
chair, should not be re- 
moved from the shell. 
However, care should 
be taken to obtain all the 
flesh surrounding the 
bones in the bony part 
of the lobster. The coral 
substance, that is, the 
roe of the lobster, should 
also be removed, as it 
can be used for a gar- 
nish. ^"=- 3^ 

With the flesh removed from the shell, proceed to take out that 
contained in the claws. Break open the large claws, using a nut 




FISH AND SHELL FISH 



§13 



cracker or a small hammer for this purpose, and, as in Fig. 36, remove 
the flesh that they contain. If the small claws are to be used for a 

garnish, as is often done, 
remove the flesh without 
breaking them ; other- 
wise break them as in 
the case of the large 
ones. 

114. L o 1> s t e r 
Cocktail. — Practically 
all varieties of shell fish 
make most satisfactory 
cocktails, and lobster is 
no exception. To make 
a lobster cocktail, shred 
cr cut into small pieces 
the flesh of a lobster that 
has been prepared according to the directions just given. Chill the 
shreds or pieces and then serve them in stemmed cocktail glasses 
with any desirable cocktail sauce. 

115. Scalloped Lobster. — Persons who care for the flavor 




Fig. 35 




of lobster will find scalloped lobster a very attractive dish. When 
prepared in this way, it is suitable either for luncheon or for dinner. 



§13 FISH AND SHELL FISH 55 

Scalloped Lobster 
(Sufficient to Serve Six) 

1 c. lobster meat 1 hard-cooked egg 

1 c. medium white sauce Salt 

f c. buttered bread crumbs Pepper 
Mix the lobster with the medium white sauce. Butter a baking 
dish, place half of the crumbs in the bottom, and pour over them the 
lobster and white sauce. Slice the hard-cooked egg over the top of 
the lobster, season the whole well with salt and pepper, and sprinkle 
the remainder of the crumbs over the top. Place in a hot oven and 
bake until the crumbs are brown. Garnish with sprays of parsley 
and serve at once. 

IIG. Deviled Lobster. — A dish that is delicious and at the 
same time very attractive is deviled lobster. After removing the 
flesh from the shell, the shell should be cleaned thoroughly, as it is 
to be used as a receptacle in which to put the lobster mixture for 
baking. When removed from the oven, this dish can be made more 
attractive by garnishing it with the lobster claws and tail. 
Deviled Lobster 

(Sufficient to Serve Six) 

1 Tb. chopped onion ^ tsp. pepper 

2 Tb. butter 1 Tb. lemon juice 

2 Tb. flour 1 Tb. chopped parsley 

1 tsp. salt 1 c. milk 

Dash of Cayenne pepper 2 c. lobster meat 

i tsp. paprika ^ c. buttered cracker crumbs 

Saute the onion in the butter, and to this add the flour, salt, 
Cayenne pepper, paprika, pepper, lemon juice, and parsley. Mix 
Avell and add the milk. When the whole has cooked until it is thick, 
add the lobster. Pour the mixture into the clean shell of the lobster, 
sprinkle with cracker crumbs, and place in the oven long enough to 
brown the crumbs. Remove from the oven, place on a serving dish, 
garnish with the claws and tail of the lobster, if desired, and serve 
at once. 

117. Lobster a la Newburg-. — When lobster a la Newburg 
is mentioned, one naturally thinks of a chafing dish, for this is one 
of the dishes that is very often made in a chafing dish and served at 
small social gatherings. However, it can be made just as satisfac- 
torily on the kitchen stove and is a dish suitable for a home luncheon 
or small dinner. 



56 FISH x\ND SHELL FISH §13 

Lobster a la Newburg 

(Sufficient to Serve Six) 

2 Tb. butter i c. milk 

1 Tb. flour i c. thin cream 

2 c. lobster 1 tsp. vinegar 

i tsp. salt 1 Tb. lemon juice 

Few grains of Cayenne pepper 2 egg yolks 

Melt the butter in a saucepan, add the flour, and into this pour the 
lobster meat cut into rather large pieces. Add the salt, pepper, milk, 
and cream ; cook together until thick, and then pour in the vinegar 
and lemon juice. Beat the egg yolks and stir them into the cooked 
mixture, using care to prevent them from curdling. When the mix- 
ture has thickened, remove from the stove and serve over toast. 

118. Lobster Croquettes. — Probably the most attractive dish 
that can be made out of lobster is the one explained in the accom- 
panying recipe. As this is artistically garnished, and at the same 
time extremely appetizing, it is suitable for a meal that is intended 
to be very nice, such as a dainty luncheon. If the elaborate garnish- 
ing here suggested is not desired, the croquettes may be served with 
merely a suitable sauce. 

Lobster Croquettes 

(Sufficient to Serve Six) 

1 c. thick white sauce | tsp. salt 

2 eggs i tsp. pepper 

2 c. diced lobster meat Fine bread crumbs 

Prepare the white sauce and allow it to cool. Add one beaten egg 
and the lobster meat. Season with the salt and pepper. Shape into 
croquettes, roll in beaten egg, then in crumbs, and fry in deep fat 
until an even brown. Drain, stick a lobster claw into the end of each, 
and arrange on a platter with the claws around the outside. Pour 
a medium white sauce over the opposite ends and the centers of the 
croquettes and over this sprinkle the lobster coral and hard-cooked 
egg yolks, which have been forced through a sieve. In the center of 
the platter, arrange a small mound of parsley and one of the large 
claws of the lobster. 



CRABS AND THEIR PREPARATIOJV 

119. Nature of Crabs. — Numerous varieties of crabs are 
obtained along the seashores of the United States, and most of them 
measure not more than 5 or 6 inches across. Shell fish in this form 



§13 FISH AND SHELL FISH 57 

are used for food both before the shells have hardened, when they 
are known as soft-sJicllcd crabs, and after the shells have grown 
hard, when they are called hard-shcUcd crabs. To be at their best, 
crabs should be as heavy as lobsters in proportion to their size. 
Their flesh should be firm and stiff and their eyes should be bright. 
The male crab has a smaller body and longer claws than the 
female. In food value, crabs are quite similar to lobsters. 

Tiny oyster crabs are found in the shells of crabs as well as in 
oysters. These are considered a great delicacy and are used chiefly 
for garnishing, because they are very small and, as a rule, are not 
found in large numbers. 

120. Preliminary Preparation. — Before either soft-shelled 
or hard-shelled crabs can be used as food, a certain amount of prep- 
aration is necessary. In the case of hard-shelled crabs, plunge them 
alive into hot water, allow them to come to the boiling point, and 
cook slowly for ^ hour. It is a good plan to add 1 tablespoonful of 
salt for each crab that is being boiled. While the crabs are cooking, 
remove the scum that rises to the top. When they are sufficiently 
cooked, open the shells and take out the meat, being careful to 
remove all the meat from the claws. 

Soft-shelled crabs require a somewhat dift'erent kind of prepara- 
tion. With this variety, lift up the points on each side of the back 
shell and remove the spongy substance that is found under them. 
In addition, take off the apron, which is the small piece that occurs 
at the lower part of the shell and that terminates in points. The 
crabs are then ready for frying, which is the method of cooking that 
is usually applied to this variety. 

121. Crab-Flake Cocktail. — Crab meat is used for cocktails 
in the same way as oysters, clams, and lobster. In fact, no better 
appetizer to serve at the beginning of a meal can be found. To 
make crab-flake cocktail, remove the meat from the shells of cooked 
hard-shelled crabs in the way just explained, and chill it. Then 
place it in stemmed glasses and serve with cocktail sauce. 

122. Deviled Crabs. — Variety in the cooking of hard-shelled 
crabs can be secured by deviling them according to the accompany- 
ing directions. As will be observed, this is done in practically the 
same way that lobster is deviled. 



58 FISH AND SHELL FISH §13 

Deviled Crabs 

(Sufficient to Serve Four) 

2 Tb. butter Dash Cayenne pepper 

4 crabs | tsp. pepper 

1 c. cream sauce 1 egg 

1 Tb. onion juice Cracker crumbs 

•J tsp. salt 
Put the butter in a frying pan, add the meat from the four crabs, 
and pour into this the cream sauce. Season with the onion juice, 
salt, Cayenne pepper, and pepper. Add the well-beaten egg and 
allow the mixture to cook until the egg has thickened, being careful 
not to let it curd. Fill the back shells of the crabs with this mix- 
ture, sprinkle with cracker crumbs, place in a hot oven, and bake 
until brown. Serve hot or cold. 

123. Fried Soft-Shelled Crabs.— After soft-shelled crabs 
are prepared in the manner explained in Art. 120, they are usually 
fried in deep fat. Egg and cracker dust or flour are used to make a 
coating for the crabs. 

Fried Soft-Shelled Crabs 
(Sufficient to Serve Four) 

4 soft-shelled crabs Cracker dust or flour 

1 egg Salt and pepper 

Prepare the crabs by removing the apron and the spongy sub- 
stance under the shell of each crab. Beat the egg slightly. Roll the 
crabs first in the egg and then in the cracker dust or the flour. Fry 
in hot, deep fat until a golden brown. Remove from the fat, drain, 
and sprinkle well with salt and pepper to season. Serve hot or cold. 

124. Creamed Crab Meat. — When the meat of hard-shelled 
crabs is creamed, it makes a very dainty dish, especially if it is served 
over toast or in timbale cases. To give a touch of color and at the 
same time add a little flavor, chopped pimiento is generally added. 

Boil the desired number of hard-shelled crabs and remove the 
meat from the shells. For each cupful of crab meat, prepare 1 cup- 
ful of medium white sauce. Add the crab meat, season well, and, if 
desired, add some chopped pimiento. Serve hot over toast or in 
timbale cases. 



SHRIMP AND THEIR I'REPARATIOIV 

125. Nature of Shrimp. — Shrimp are similar to crabs and 
lobsters in composition and in the methods of preparation. They 
differ considerably in appearance, however, and are smaller in size. 



i<]; 



FISH AND SHELL FISH 



59 




When alive, shrimp are a mottled greenish color, but upon being 
dropped into boiling-hot water they turn red. When they have cooked 
sufficiently, the meat, which is very delicious, may be easily removed 
from the shells. After the meat of shrimp is thus prepared, it may 
be used cold in a salad or a cocktail or it may be utilized in a number 
of ways for hot dishes. Very often a chafing dish is used in the 
preparation of such 
dishes, but this utensil 
is not necessary, as they 
may be cooked in an 
ordinary utensil on a 
stove of any kind. 

126. Creamed 
Shrimp. — T he us u a 1 
way of preparing shrimp 
is to cook it with mush- 

j ^1 -^ Fig. i7 

rooms and then serve it 

over toast, or, as shown in Fig. Z7, in timbale cases. Creamed shrimp 

is dainty in appearance, pleasing to the taste, and highly nutritious. 

Creamed Shrimp 

(Sufficient to Serve Six) 

1 c. medium white sauce ^ tsp. salt 

1 c. diced shrimp ^ tsp. pepper 

h c. chopped mushrooms 
Heat the white sauce, and to it add the shrimp, nuishrooms, salt, 
and pepper. Beat a little butter into the mixture to improve the 
flavor, heat, and serve in timbale cases, as shown, or over toast. 

127. Shrimp a La Salle. — Shrimp also makes an appetizing 
and attractive dish when combined wnth tomato and green pepper. 
The accompanying recipe gives directions for the preparation of 
such a dish, which is called shrimp a La Salle. 

Shrimp a La Salle 

(Sufficient to Serve Six) 

2 Tb. butter 1 Tb. chopped onion 

1 c. shredded shrimp I tsp. celery salt 

1 c. stewed tomato 1 tsp. salt 

1 small green pepper, chopped | tsp. pepper 

Brown the butter in a saucepan, and add the shrimp, tomato, 

green pepper, onion, celery salt, salt, and pepper. Heat all together 

thoroughly, and serve over toast. 




FISH AND SHELL FISH 



EXAMINATION QUESTIONS 

(1) (a) For what food may fish Ix; substituted in the diet? (b) How does 
fish compare with meat as to its usefuhiess as food? 

(2) (a) What food substances are present in fish? (b) How does the food 
vahie of fish compare with that of meat? 

(3) (a) Discuss the digestibiHty of fish, (b) How does the salting of 
fish for preservation afi^ect its digestibiHty? 

(4) How does the housewife's purchase of fish affect the market price? 

(5) What methods of cookery should be used in preparing: (a) large fish? 
(b) small fish? 

(6) Alention the tests for determining the freshness of fish. 

(7) Discuss the care of fish in the home. 

(8) Give the steps in the preparation of a fish for cooking. 

(9) Give the steps in the boning of a fish. 

(10) («) What are fillets? (b) Tell briefly how fillets are obtained. 

(11) Why are sauces frequently served with fish? 

(12) (a) What is larding? (b) How may fish be larded? (f) For what 
purpose is larding done? 

(13) How may salt fish be freshened? 

(14) (a) Mention the shell fish, (b) Discuss their usefulness in the diet. 

(15) What precautions should be taken in the purchase of shell fish? 

(16) Discuss the composition and food value of shell fish. 

(17) Compare the composition of milk with that of oysters. 

(18) (a) What is the season for oysters? (b) How are oysters opened? 

(19) (a) How are clams opened? (b) What is the effect of long cook- 
ing on clams? 

(20) (a) How are lobsters prepared? (b) Mention the two kinds of 
crabs, (c) How do these differ. 

ADDITIONAL, "WORK 

Mention the varieties of fish most common in your local market. 

Compare the cost of a sufficient amount of fish to serve your family with the 
cost of beef and either veal or lamb served to the same number of persons at 
other times. Submit your results. 

§13 



INDEX 



Note. — In this Volume, each Section is complete in itself and has a number, which, 
together with the section mark (S), is printed at the top of every page of the Section. 
To find a reference, glance along the inside edges of the headlines until you find the 
desired Section number and then along the outside edges until you find the desired 
page. Thus, to find the reference "Hard-shelled crabs, §13, p57," turn to the Section 
marked §13, and then to page 57 of that Section. 

A Beef, Cuts of, §10, pl8 

Fillet of, §10, p31 

for stewing and corning. Cuts of, §10, p38 

Frizzled, §10, p47 

General characteristics of, §10, pl7 

hash, §10, p46 

Left-over, §10, p4S 

loaf, §10, p37 

loaf, Recipe for, §10, p38 

loin. Steaks obtained from, §10, p22 

Mexican, §10, p4S 

organs and their preparation, §10, p42 

pie, §10, p46 

Pot-roasted, §10, p37 

Preparation of stews and corned, §10, p38 

Roast, §10. p34 

stew, §10, p38 

Tenderloin of, §10, pp21, 24, 31 
Beefsteak, Broiled, §10, p27 
Beefsteaks and their preparation, SIO, p22 
Birds, Preparation of small, §12, p24 

Roast small, §12, p33 
Biscuits, Creamed veal on, §11, pll 
Bisques, §9, p4 
Bivalves, §13, p36 
Blue points, §13, p41 
Bluefish, Composition and food value of, 

§13, p5 
Bob veal, §11, pi 
Boiled cod, §13, p22 

corned beef, §10, p41 

dinner, §10, p41 

fish, §13, p21 

ham, §11, p36 

salmon, §13, p32 

tongue, §10, p42 
Boiler, Fish, §13, p21 
Boiling, Cooking meat by, §10, pl3 
Bologna, §11, p39 
Bone stock, §9, p6 



Adductor muscle of an oyster, §13, p42 
American forcemeat balls, §9, p36 
Apples, Bacon with sliced, §11, p34 

Cold pork with fried, §11, p37 
Asparagus soup, Cream-of-, §9, p27 



Bacon, §11, pp27, 33 

and eggs, §11, p34 

Calves' liver and, §11, plO 

combined with cereals, §11, p34 

combined with other foods, §11, p34 

with sliced apples, §11, p34 

with tomatoes, §11, p34 
Baked clams, §13, p49 

fillet of whitefish, §13, p26 

finnan haddie, §13, p32 

fish, §13, p24 

haddock, §13. p25 

halibut, §13, p26 

ham, §11, p36 

poultry with rice, §12, p49 

scallops, §13, pSO 
Balls, American forcemeat, §9, p35 

Codfish, §13, p32 

Egg, §9, p3S 

Forcemeat, §9, p35 
Bass, Food value and composition of black, 

§13, p5 
Basting of meat. §10, p36 
Batter, Timbale-case, §11. p44 
Bechamel, Chicken, §12, p4S 
Beef, §10, pl7 

Boiled corned, §10, p41 

Braized, §10, p36 

Composition and food value of, §10, pS; 
§13, p5 

Cooking of, §10, p22 

Corned, §10, p40 



INDEX 



Boned chicken, §12, p35 
Boning a chicken, §12, p35 

a fish, §13, pl4 
Borsch, §9, p5 
Bouillon, §9, p4 

Tomato, §9, p21 
Braized beef, §10, p36 

beef. Recipe for, §10, p37 

tongue, §10, p43 
Braizing, §10, pl5 
Bread sticks, §9 p34 

stuffing, §12, p33 
Broiled beefsteak. §10, p27 

fillet, §10, p31 

fish, §13, p22 

fresh mackerel, §13, p23 

ham, §11, p3S 

pork. Sauted or, §11, p31 

poultry, §12, p2S 

scrod with potato border, §13, p23 

shad roe, §13, p23 

squirrel, §12, p5S 

sweetbreads, §11, p9 

venison, §12, p5S 

venison, Sauce for, §12, p5S 
Broiler, §12, p6 
Broilers, Composition and food value of, 

§13, pS 
Broiling, cooking meat by, §10, pl2 
Broth, §9, p4 

Brown sauce. Veal cutlets in, §11, p5 
Buying meats, Points to consider in, §10, pj 



Cabbage, Scalloped pork and, §11, p37 
Calves' liver and bacon, §11, plO 
Canned fish in the diet, §13, p33 
Cape Cods, §13, p41 
Capons, §12, p4 
Carbohydrate in fish, §13, p4 

in meat, §10, p7 
Care, nature, and use of stock pot, §9, p7 

of fish in the home, §13, pll 

of meat, §10, p8 

of meat in the home, §10, plO 

of meat in the market, §10, plO 
Carp, Composition and food value of, §13, 1.5 
Carving meat, Serving and, §11, p38 

poultry, Serving and, §12, p49 
Casserole, Chicken en, §12, p44 
Catfish, Composition and food value of, 

§13, p5 
Caul, §11, pis 

Celery and .radishes, §9, p32 
Cereals, Bacon combined with, §11, p34 
Chestnut puree, §9, p29 

stuffing, §12, p34 
Chicken a la king, §12, p47 

Bechamel, §12, p4S 

Boned, §12, p3S 



Chicken broilers. Composition and food 
value of, §13, pS 

Crop of a, §12, pl5 

croquettes, §12, p47 

curry, §12, p44 

Cutting up a, §12, pl9 

Definition of, §12, p6 

Determining the age of, §12, p8 

Determining the freshness of, §12, p9 

Drawing a, §12, plS 

Dressing a, §12. pl3 

en casserole, §12, p44 

feet. Preparing, §12, p23 

Fricassee of, §12, p43 

Fried, §12, p27 

Frying, §12, p6 

General marks of good quality in, §12, p7 

giblets, §12, pl8 

Gravy for fried, §12, p27 

Jellied, §12, p45 

Maryland fried, §12, p28 

pie, §12, p43 

Plucking a, §12, pl3 

Poultry other than, §12, p9 

Preparation of, §12, pl3 

Roast, §12, p29 

Roasting, §12, p6 

salad, §12, p47 

salad. Mock, §11, p37 

Selection of, §12, p7 

Singeing a, §12, pl4 

stew with dumplings or noodles, §12, p42 

Wing tips of, §12, p23 

with paprika sauce. Fried, §12, p28 

with rice, §12, p48 
Chickens, Live, §12, p9 
Chops in tomato sauce. Pork, §11, p31 

Lamb and mutton, §11, p20 

Veal, §11, p4 
Chowder, Clam, §9, p30 

Corn, §9, p31 

Fish, §9, p30 

Potato, §9, p30 
Chowders, §9, pp4, 30 
Chuck roasts, §10, p32 
Clam chowder, §9, p30 
Clams, and scallops, Oysters, §13, p39 

Baked, §13, p49 

Composition and food value of, §13, p38 

Fried, §13, p49 

Nature and digestibility of, §13, p47 

Opening of, §13, p48 

Preparation of, §13, p47 

Raw, §13, p48 

Steamed, §13, p48 
Classes of soup, General, §9, p3 

of soups denoting consistency, §9, p4 
Classification of poultry, §12, p3 

of soups, §9, p3 
Cleaning fish, §13, pll 



INDEX 



Clear soup or bouillon, Stock for, §9, pl9 
soups, §9, p4 
soups and stocks, §9, pl9 

Clearing soup, §9, pl4 

Cocktail, Crab-flake, §13, pS7 
Lobster, §13, p54 
Oyster, §13, p43 

Cod, Boiled, §13, p22 

Codfish balls, §13, p32 
Creamed, §13, p31 

Cold pork with fried apples, §11, p37 
-storage poultry, §12, p5 

Comparison of fish and meat, Table show- 
ing the, §13, p5 
of fish with meat, §13, p3 
of mutton and lamb, §11, pl2 

Composition and food value of beef, §10, 
p5; §13, p5 
and food value of black bass, §13, pS 
and food value of bluefish, §13, p5 
and food value of canned salmon, §13, p5 
and food value of carp, §13, pS 
and food value of catfish, §13, p5 
and food value of chicken broilers, §13, pS 
and food value of clams, §13, p38 
and food value of crabs, §13, p38 
and food value of fowl, §13, p5 
and food value of halibut steak, §13, p5 
and food value of lake trout, §13, p5 
and food value of lamb, §10, p5 
and food value of leg of lamb, §13, p5 
and food value of lobsters, §13, p38 
and food value of mutton, §10, p5 
and food value of oysters, §13, p38 
and food value of pork, §10, p5 
and food value of pork chops, §13, p5 
and food value of red snapper, §13, p5 
and food value of scallops, §13, p38 
and food value of shell fish, §13, p37 
and food value of shell fish. Tables show- 
ing, §13, p38 
and food value of veal, §10, pS 
and food value of whitefish, §13, p5 
and structure of meat, §10, p3 
of fish, §13, p3 
of oysters, §13, p39 
of poultry, §12, pl2 

Connective tissue, §10, p4 

Consomme, §9, pp4, 20 

Cooking meat for soup, §9, pll 
meat. Methods of, §10, pll 
meat. Purposes of, §10, pll 
meat, Time required for, §10, pl5 
meats. Time table for, §10, pl6 
of beef, §10, p22 
of fish, §13, pl7 
of giblets, §12, p46 
of mutton and lamb, §11, pl7 
of pork, §11, p29 
of poultry, §12, p24 



Cooking of veal, §11, p4 

oysters. Important points in, §13, p41 

Preparing rabbit for, §12, p53 
Corn chowder, §9, p31 

soup. Cream of, §9, p26 
Corned beef, §10, p40 

beef. Boiled, §10, p41 

beef. Preparation of stews and, §10, p38 
Cottage pie, jjlO, p46 
Cotuits, §13, p41 
Crab, Deviled, §13, pS7 

-flake cocktail, §13, p57 

meat. Creamed, §13, p58 
Crabs, and shrimp. General characteristics 
of lobsters, §13, p50 

Composition and food value of, §13, p38 

Fried soft-shelled, §13, p58 

Hard-shelled, §13, p57 

Nature of, §13, p56 

Oyster, §13, p57 

Preliminary preparation of, §13, p57 

Preparation of, §13, p56 

Soft-shelled, §13, p57 
Cracker stulfing, §12, p33 
Crackers, §9, p33 
Cream-of-asparagus soup, §9, p27 

-of-corn soup, §9, p26 

-of-onion soup, §9, p28 

-of-pea soup, §9, p27 

-of-potato soup, §9, p26 

-of-spinach soup, §9, p27 

-of-tomato soup, §9, p28 

sauce. Lemon, §13, pl8 

soups, §9, pp4, 25 
Creamed codfish, §13, p31 

crab meat, §13, pS8 

finnan haddie, §13, p32 

fish in potato nest, §13, p36 

oysters, §13, p45 

salmon with rice, §13, p35 

shrimp, §13, p59 

sweetbreads, §11, p9 

tuna fish, §13, p33 

veal on biscuits, §11, pll 
Crop of a chicken, §12, pl5 
Croquettes, §11, p41 

Chicken, §12, p47 

Fish, §13, p35 

Frying of, §11, p42 

Lobster, §13, pS6 

Sweetbread, §11, p43 

Veal, §11, p42 
Croutons, §9, p33 
Crown roast of lamb, §11, pl9 

roast of pork, §11, p30 
Crustaceans, §13, p36 
Cured pork. Preparation of, §11, p32 
Curry, Chicken, §12, p44 
Cutlets in brown sauce, Veal, §11, p5 

Pan-broiled veal steak or, §11, p5 



iNi)i':x 



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INDEX 



Fish. Turchaso of, §13, p7 
Sauces for, §13, pl8 
Scaling a, §13, i)12 
Seasons for shell, §13, p38 
Shell, §13, ppl, 36 
Skinning, §13, pl4 
Steamed, §13, p22 
Stewed, §13, p30 
stock, §9, p7 
Stuffing for, §13, p20 
Table showing composition 

value of shell, §13. p33 
Table showing names, seasons 

of fresh, §13, p8 
Table showing names, seasons 

of salt and smoked, §13, p9 
Table showing seasons for she 
with meat, Comparison of, §13 
Flat-bone steak, §10, p24 
Flavoring stock, §9, pl2 
Flounder, Fillet of, §1,^ p27 
Food, Poultry as a, §12, pi 
Sea, §13, pi 

suitable for the stock pot, §9, 
value and composition of bee 

§13, pS 
value and composition of hi 

§13, p5 



sh. r< 



impr 



11- §13 

. p3 



p8 

f, §10, 



, p38 



value and comi 



JSlt 



tion of hluefish. §13, p5 
f cainu'd salmon. 



§13. 1.5 




value and composition 


of carp, §13, p5 


value and composition 


of catfish. §l.i. pS 


value and composition 


of chicken hroil- 


ers, §13, pS 




value and composition 


of clams, §13, p38 


value and composition 


of crabs, §13, p38 


value and composition 


of f<uvl, §13. \^S 


value and composition 


of halibut steak 


§13, pS 




value and compositio 


.n of lake trout. 


§13. p5 




value and composition 


of lamb, §10. p5 


value and compositior 


1 of leg of lamb. 


§13, p5 




value and composition 


of lobsters, §l.i, p38 


value and composition 


of mutton, §10, pS 


value and composition of oysters, §13, p3;! 


value and composition 


of pork. §10. p5 


value and compositio 


n of pork chops. 


§13, pS 




value and composition of red snapper, 


§13, p5 




value and composition of scalloi'S. §13, p38 


value and composition 


of veal, §10. p5 


value anil coniposlti 


ion of whitefish. 


§13, pS 




value of f^sh, §13, p4 




value of fish. Factors d 


etermining, §13. p4 


Value of meat as, §10. 


Pl 



mg com- 



>f, §13. p 



foul 



p37 



2, p28 



Food value of she 
§13, p37 

value of shell fish. Tables 
position and, §13. p38 
Forcemeat balls, §9, p3S 
Fore quarter of veal, §11, p3 
Fork, Oyster. §13, p44 
Fowl, Composition and food v; 

Definition of, §12, p6 
I'owls, Selection of guinea. §12, pll 
I'raukfurters, §11, p39 

I'resh fish. Table showing the names, sea 
sons, and uses of, §13, pS 

herring. Stewed, §13, p30 

mackerel. Broiled, §13, p23 

pork. Preparation of, §11, p29 
Freshening salt and sn.oked fish, §13, p31 
I'reshness of fish, §13, plO 
Fricassee of chicken, §12, p43 
Frieasseeing applied to meat 

§10, pis 
Fried apples. Cold pork with, §1 

chicken, §12, p27 

chicken. Gravy for, §12, p27 

chicken, Maryland, §12, p28 

chicken with paprika sauce, § 

clams, §13, p49 

eel, §13, p28 

fish, §13, p28 

oysters, §13, p46 

perch, §13, p28 

scallops, §13, pSO 

soft-shelled crabs. §13, pS8 
Fritters, Oyster, §13, p47 

Soup, §9, p3S 
Frizzled beef. §10. p47 
Frying and s: 
§10, pl3 

chicken. §12. ])6 

of cro(|uettcs, §11. p 12 

Princiiiles of deep fal. ini, p40 



Gall bladder. §12. plS 
Game, Definition of, §12, pl 

Genera' description of, §12, pS2 

stock, §9, p6 
Garnishes, Soup accompaniments and. §9, p31 
Geese, Selection of, §12. plO 
Gelatine in meat, §10, p6 
Giblets, Cooking of, §12, ])46 

of a chicken, §12, pl8 
Glycogen, or muscle sugar, §10, p7 
Goose, Preparation of, §12, p24 

Roast, §12, p32 
Gravy for fried chicken. §12, p27 

Making, §10, p44 
Green-pepper stuffing, §12, p34 
Guinea fowls. Selection of, §12, pll 



applied to meat, 



INDEX 



H 

Haddock, Baked, §13, p25 
Halibut, Baked, SU, p26 

steak. Composition and food value of, 
§13. pS 

steak, Sauted, §13, p29 
Ham, §11, p34 

Baked, §11, p36 

baked in milk, §11, p36 

Boiled, §11, p36 

Broiled, §11, p3S 
Hamburger steak, §10, p29 
Hard-shelled crabs, §13, pS7 
Hash, Beef, §10, p46 

Turkey, §12, p48 
Headcheese, §11, p24 
Healthfulness of oysters, §13, p40 
Heart, Stuffed, §10, p43 

sweetbread, §11, p3 
Heavy thick soups, §9, p21 
Herring, Stewed fresh, §13, p30 
Hind quarter of veal, §11, p3 
Hip-bone steak, §10, p24 
Home, Care of fish in the, §13, pll 
Horseradish sauce, §13, pl9 
Household stock, §9, pp6, 19 



Individual lamb pies, §11, p23 

Influence of feeding and care on quality of 

poultry, §12, p3 
Iron, Timbale, §11, p44 



Jellied chicken, §12, p45 

veal, §11, 1.8 

veal, Left-over, §11, pll 
Julienne s(jup, §9, i:21 



Keeping stock, §9, pI5 
Kidneys, §11, plO 
Kouskous, §9, pS 
Krishara, §9, p5 



Lake trout. Composition and food value 

of, §13, p5 
Lamb, §11, pl2 
and mutton chops, §11, p20 
and mutton cuts, Distinguishing features 

of, §11, pis 
and mutton cuts. Names and uses of, 

§11, pis 
and mutton, Left-over, §11, p21 
and mutton stews, §11, p21 
Comparison of mutton and, §11, pl2 
Composition and food value of, §10, p5 
Cooking of mutton and, §11, \A7 



Lamb, Crown roast of, §11, pl9 

cuts, Metliod of obtaining mutton and, 
§11, pis 

cuts. Table of mutton and, §11, pl7 

Food value and composition of leg of, 
§13, pS 

on toast, Minced, §11, p22 

or mutton, Scalloped, §11, p22 

pies. Individual, §11, p23 

Rack of, §11, plS 

Koast leg of, §11, pl7 

Saddle of, §11, pis 

Spring, §11, pl3 

Turkish, §11, p21 
Lard, Leaf, §11, p24 
Larding, §11, p33 
Leaf lard, §11, p24 
Lebaba, §9, pS 
Left-over beef, §10, p4S 

-over fish, §13, i)3S 

-over jellied veal, §11, pll 

-over lamb and mutton, §11, p21 

-over pork, §11, p37 

-over poultry, §12, p46 

-over veal, §11, pIO 
Leg of venison. Roast, §12, p56 
Lemon cream sauce, §13, pl8 
Live chickens, §12, p9 
Liver and bacon, §11, plO 

stuffing for roast duck, §12, p3S 
Liverwurst, §11, p39 
Loaf, Beef, §10, p37 
Lobster a la Ncwlnirg, §13, p5S 

cocktail, §13, pS4 

croquettes, §13, p56 

Deviled, §13, p5S 

from the shell. Removing, §13, pS2 

Scalloped, §13, p54 
Lobsters, Composition and food value of, 
§13, p38 

crabs, and shrimp, §13, p5n 

Distinguishing features of, §13, pSl 

Preparation of, §13, p51 
Loin, Steaks obtained from beef, §10, p22 
Lynn Havens, §13, p41 

M 

Mackerel, Broilc.l frcsli, §13, p23 

Sauted salt, §13, p32 
Making gravy, §10, p44 

soup, §9, p9 
Market, I'reparation of poultry for, §12, p4 
Maryland fried chicken, §12, p28 
Meaning and use of soup stock, §9, pS 
Meat as food. Value of, §10, pi 

Basting of, §10, p36 

Carbohydrate in, §10, p7 

Care of, §10, p8 

Comparison of fisli with, §12, p3 

Cooking of, §10, pll 



INDEX 



Meat. Croaiiicd crab. Slo. p5S 

cuts. Names ami uses of, §10, pJO 

Definition of, §10, pi 

extracts, §9, p7 

Extractives in, §10, p7 

Fat in, §10, p6 

Gelatine in, §10, p6 

in the diet, §10, pi 

in tlie home. Care of, §10. plO 

in the market. Care of, §10. plO 

Methods of cooking, §10, pll 

Minerals in, §10, p7 

preparations, Sausages and, §11, p.i9 

Protein in, §10, p4 

Purchase of, §10, p8 

Purposes of cooking, §10. pll 

Relative nutritive value of fish and, 
§U'. p5 

Serving and carving of, §11. p.iS 

Structure and composition of, §10, p.> 

Time required for cooking, §10, plS 

used for soup making, §9, p9 

Water in, §10, p7 
Meats. Points to consider in buying, SIO, p.i 

Time table for cooking, §10, pl6 
Method of obtaining beef cuts, §10. plS 

of obtaining mutton and lamb cuts, §11. pl5 
Methods of cooking meat, §10, pll 
Mexican beef, §10, p4S 
Mignon, Fillet, §10. p32 
Milk, Ham baked in, §11, p36 
Minced lamb on toast, §11, p22 
Mineral matter in fish, §13, p4 
Minerals in meat, §10, p7 
Minestra, §9, pS 
Mint sauce, §11, pl8 
Mock chicken salad, §11, p37 
Mock duck, or rolled steak, §10. p2S 
Mold, Salmon, §13, p34 
Mollusks, §13, p36 
Mulligatawny soup, §9, pp5, 22 
Muscle sugar, Glycogen or, §10, p7 
Mushroom sauce, §13, p20 
Mutton. §11, pl2 
and lamb chops, §11, ])20 

and land). Comparison of, §11. pl2 

and lamb. Cooking of. §11. pI7 

and lamb cuts, Distinguishing features 
of. §11, pl5 

an<l lamb cuts. Method of obtaining. §11. 

pis 

and lamb cuts, Names and uses of, 

§11, pis 

and lamb cuts, Table of, §11. plT 

Composition and food value of, $10. p5 

Left-over lamb and, §11, p21 

Rack of, §11, pis 

Roast leg of, §11. pl7 

Roast saddle of. §11. pl9 

Saddle of, §11, pis 



Mutton, Scalloped lamb or, §11. p22 
stews, l.amb and. §11, pJl 

IV 
Noodle soup. §9. p23 

Noodles, Chicken stew with dumplings or, 
§12. p42 
Vegetable soup with, §'). p2 1 
Nut sauce. §1.5, pI9 
Nutritive value of fish. Krlative, §13, pS 

O 

Onion soup, Cream-of-, §', p28 
Opening clams, §13, p4S 

oysters, §13, p42 
Organs, Veal, §11, pp3, 9 
Ox-tail soup, §9, p22 
Oyster, Adductor muscle of an. §13, p42 

cocktails, §13, p43 

crabs, §13, pS7 

fork, §13, p44 

fritters, §13, p47 

pie, §13, p46 

stew. §13, p44 

stufTing, §12, p34 

Valves of an, §13, p42 
Oysters, clams, and scallops, §13, p39 

Composition of, §13. p3'' 

Creamed, §13, p4S 

Digestibility of, §13. ji !0 

Food value of. §13. ]i.;8 

Fried, §13. p46 

Healthfulness of. §13. p40 

Important points in cooking, §13, p41 

Opening, §13, p42 

Preparation of, §13, p3'' 

I'urchasing, §13, pll 

Raw. §1.1, p43 

Scalloped, §13, pIS 

V 

Pan-broiled steak, §10, p27 

-broiled veal steaks or cutlets. §11. pS 

broiling. Cooking meat by. §10, i)12 
Paprika sauce. Fried chicken with. §12, p28 
Partridge, Selection of, §12, pl2 
I'astry strips, §9, p34 
Pate de fois gras, §12, plO 
Patties, Rice and meat, §11, p43 

Salmon, §13, p3S 
Pea soup. Cream-of-, §9, p2" 
Peanut stuffing for roast duck. §12, p35 
Perch, Fried, §13, p28 
Pheasant, partridge, and quail. §12. pl2 

Selection of. §12, pl2 
Pickerel, Sauted, §13, p29 
Pickled pig's feet, §11, p40 

tongue, §10. 1)42 
Pie, Beef, §10, p46 



W 



-(:3-18 



INDEX 



Pie, Chicken, §12, p4.1 

Cottage, §10, p46 

Oyster, §13, p46 

Rabbit, §12, p54 
Pies, Individual lamb. §11, p23 
Pig, Roast, §11, p30 
Pigeons, Selection of, §12, pll 
Pig's feet. Pickled, §11, p40 
Pigs in blankets, §13, p47 
Pin feathers, §12, p8 
Planked fish, §13, p27 

steak, §10, p30 
Plucking a chicken, §12, pl3 

Dry, §12, pS 
Poisoning, Ptomaine, §13, pSl 
Ponhasse, §11, p40 
Pork, §11, p23 

and cabbage, Scalloped, §11, p37 

chops and tomato sauce, §11, p31 

chops, Composition and food value of, 
§13, p5 

Composition and food value of, §10, p5 

Cooking of, §11, p29 

Crown roast of, §11, p30 

Cuts of, §11, p24 

cuts, Table of, §11, p28 

cuts, Uses of, §11, p24 

General characteristics of. §11, p23 

Left-over, §11, p37 

Preparation of cured, §11, p32 

Preparation of fresh, §11, p29 

Roast, §11, p29 

Salt, §11, pp27, 33 

sausage, §11, p32 

Sauted or broiled, §11, p31 

Sauted tenderloin of, §11, p31 

Tenderloin of, §11, p27 

with fried apples, Cold, §11, p37 
Porterhouse roast, §10, p33 

steak, §10, p24 
Pot-au-feu, §9, pl3 

-roasted beef, §10, p37 

Stock, §9, p7 
Potato border, Broiled scrod with, §13, p23 

chowder, §9, p30 

nest, Creamed fish in, §13, p36 

soup, Cream-of-, §9, p26 
Potpie, Veal, §11, p7 
Potroka, §9, pS 
Poulards, §12, p4 
Poultry as a food, §12, pi 

Broiled, §12, p2S 

Classification of, §12, p3 

Cold-storage, §12, p5 

Composition of, §12, pl2 

Definition of, §12, pi 

Effect of sex on quality of, §12, p4 

for cooking. Preparation of, §12, pl3 

for the market. Preparation of, §12, p4 

Indication of cold-storage, §12, p6 



Poultry, Left-over, §12, p46 

other than chicken, §12, p9 

Selection of, §12, p2 

Serving and carving, §12, p49 

Stuffing for roast, §12, p33 

Table for the selection of, §12, pll 

with rice. Baked, §12, p49 
Preparation of beef organs, §10, p42 

of beefsteak, §10, p22 

of chicken, §12, pl3 

of clams, §13, p47 

of crabs, §13, p56 

of cured pork, §11, p32 

of duck, §12, p24 

of fresh pork, §11, p29 

of goose, §12, p24 

of lobsters, §13, p51 

of oysters, §13, p39 

of poultry for cooking, §12, pl3 

of poultry for the market, §12, p4 

of roasts, §10, p31 

of scallops, §13, p49 

of shrimp, §13, p58 

of small birds, §12, p24 

of stews and corned beef, §10, p38 

of sweetbreads, §11, p9 

of turkey, §12, p23 

of veal cuts, §11, p4 
Preparing chicken feet, §12, p23 

rabbit for cooking, §12, p53 
Principles of deep-fat frying, §11, p40 
Processes involved in making stock, §9, pll 
Protein in fish, §13, p3 

in meat, §10, p4 
Ptomaine poisoning, §13, p51 
Purchase of fish, §13, p7 

of meat, §10, p8 

of poultry. Economy in the, §12, p2 
Purchasing oysters, §13, p41 
Puree, Chestnut, §9, p29 

Split-pea, §9, p29 
Purees, §9, ppS, 29 
Purpose of soup in the meal, §9, pi 
Purposes of cooking meat, §10, pll 



Quail, Selection of, §12, pl2 
Quality in chicken. General marks of good, 
§12, p7 
of poultry. Effect of sex on, §12, p4 
of poultry, Influence of feeding and care 
on, §12, p3 

R 
Rabbit for cooking, Preparing, §12, p53 
pie, §12, pS4 
Roast, §12, pS4 
Sauted, §12, p54 
Rack of lamb, §11, plS 

of mutton, §11, pis 
Radishes and celery, §9, p32 



INDEX 



Raw clams, §13, p48 

oysters, §13, p43 
Red snapper, Food value and compositii 

of, §13, p5 
Relative nutritive value of fish, §13, p5 
Removing grease from soup, §9, pl4 

lobster from the shell, §13, p52 
Rib roast. Standing, §10, p33 

roasts, §10, p32 
Rice and meat patties, §11, p43 

Baked poultry with, §12, p49 

Chicken with, §12, p48 

Creamed salmon with, §13, p3S 

Scalloped veal with, §11, pll 

stuffing, §12, p34 
Rigor mortis, §10, p6; §12, pl4 
Roast beef, §10, p34 

chicken, §12, p29 

duck, §12, p32 

duck. Liver stuffing for, §12, p25 

duck. Peanut stuffing for, §12, p3S 

fillet of venison, §12, p55 

goose, §12, p32 

leg of lamb, §11, pl7 

leg of mutton, §11, pl7 

leg of venison, §12, p56 

of lamb. Crown, §11, pl9 

of pork, Crown, §11, p30 

pig, §11, p30 

pork, §11, p29 

Porterhouse, §10, p33 

poultry. Stuffing for, §12, p33 

rabbit, §12, p54 

saddle of mutton. §11, pl9 

small birds, §12, p33 

Standing rib, §10, p33 

turkey, §12, p31 
Roasting, §10, pl2 

chicken, §12, p6 
Roasts, Chuck, §10. p32 

Preparation of, §10, p31 

Rib, §10, p32 

Rump, §10, p34 

Veal. §11, p6 
Roe, Broiled shad, §13, p23 
Rolled steak, or mock duck, §10, p28 

steak. Stuffing for, §10, p28 
Rolls, Veal, §11, plO 
Rump roasts, §10, p34 



Saddle of lamb, §11, plS 

of mutton, §11, pis 

of mutton. Roast, §11, pl9 
Salad, Chicken, §12, p47 

Mock chicken, §11, p37 

Veal. §11, pll 
Salmon, Boiled, §13, p32 

Composition and food value of canned, 
§13, p5 



Salmon mold, §13, p34 

mold, Dressing for, §13, p34 

patties, §13, p3S 

with rice, Creamed, §13, p3S 
Salt and smoked fish, Freshening, §13, p31 

and smoked fish in the diet, §13, p31 

and smoked fish. Table showing names, 
seasons, and uses of, §13, p9 

mackerel. Sauted, §13, p32 

pork, §11, pp27, ii 
Sauce, Drawn-butter, §13, p20 

Egg, §13, pl9 

for broiled venison, §12, p55 

Fried chicken with paprika, §12, p28 

Horseradish, §13. pl9 

Lemon cream, §13, pl8 

Mint, §11, pl8 

Mushroom, §13, p20 

Nut, §13, pl9 

Spanish, §13, pl9 

Thin white, §9, p26 

Tomato, §13, pl9 
Sauces for fish, §13, pl8 
Sausage, Pork, §11, p32 
Sausages and meat preparations, §11, p39 
Sauted fish, §13, p28 

halibut steak, §13, p29 

or broiled pork, §11, p31 

pickerel, §13, p29 

rabbit, §12, pS4 

salt mackerel, §13, p32 

smelts, §13, p29 

tenderloin of pork, §11, p31 
Sauteing and frying, §10. pl3 
Scaling a fish, §13, pl2 
Scalloped lamb or mutton. §11, p22 

lobster, §13, p54 

oysters, §13, p4S 

pork with cabbage, §11, p37 

veal with rice, §11, pll 
Scallops, Baked, §13, p50 

Composition and food value of, §13, p33 

Fried, §13. pSO 

Oysters, clams, and, §13, p39 

Preparation of, §13. p49 
Scrapple, §11, pp24, 40 

Scrod with potato border. Broiled, §13. p23 
Sea food, §13, pi 

Seasons, and uses of fresh fish. Table show- 
ing the names, §13, p8 

and uses of smoked fish. Table showing 
the names, §13, p9 

for shell fish, §13, p38 

for shell fish. Table showing, §13, p38 
Second soup stock, §9, p6 
Selection of chicken, §12, p6 

of ducks, §12, plO 

of poultry, §12, p2 

of turkeys, §12. p9 
Serving and carving meat, §11, p38 



INDEX 



Serving and carving poultry, §12, p49 

soup, §9, pl6 
Shad roe, Broiled, §13, p23 
Shell fish, §13, ppl, 36 

fish. Composition and food value of, §13, 
p37 

fish. Seasons for, §13, p38 

fish. Tables showing composition and 
food value of, §13, p38 

fish. Table showing seasons for, §13, p38 
Shrimp a La Salle, §13, p59 

Creamed, §13, p59 

General characteristics of lobsters, crabs, 
and, §13, pSO 

Lobsters, crabs, and, §13, pSO 

Nature of, §13, p58 

Preparation of, §13, p58 
Simmering-, or stewing, §10, pl4 
Singeing a chicken, §12, pl4 
Sirloin steak, §10, p2S 
Skinning fish, §13, pl4 
Skirt steak, §10, p29 
Small birds, Preparation of, §12, p24 

birds. Roast, §12, p33 
Smelts, Sauted, §13, p29 
Smoked fish, Freshening salt and, §13, p31 

fish in the diet. Salt and, §13, p31 

fish, Table showing the names, seasons, 
and uses of, §13, p9 
.Soft-shelled crabs, §13, p57 

-shelled crabs, Fried, §13, p58 
Soljinka, §9, p5 
Soup, §9, pi 

accompaniments and garnishes, §9, p31 

accompaniments. Recipes for, §9, pl8 

and its place in the meal, §9, pi 

and soup accompaniments, §9, plS 

Clearing of, §9, pl4 

Cooking meat for, §9, pll 

Cream-of-asparagus, §9, p27 

Cream-of-corn, §9, p26 

Cream-of-onion, §9, p28 

Cream-of-pea, §9, p27 

Cream-of-potato, §9, p26 

Cream-of-spinach, §9, p27 

Cream-of-tomato, §9, p28 

Definition of, §9, pi 

Economic value of, §9, p3 

extracts, §9, p7 

fritters, §9, p3S 

General classes of, §9, p3 

in the meal, Purpose of, §9, pi 

in the meal. Value of, §9, p2 

Julienne, §9, p21 

making, Meat used for, §9, p9 

Making of. §9, p9 

making. Vegetables used for, §9, plO 

Mulligatawny, §9, p22 

Noodle, §9, p23 

Ox-tail, §9, p22 



Soup, Principal ingredients of, §9, p9 

Recipes for, §9, pl8 

Removing grease from, §9, pl4 

Serving, §9, pl6 

stock. Meaning and use of, §9, pS 

stock, Uses of, §9, pS 

stock. Varieties of, §9, p6 

Thickening, §9, pl4 

Value of, §9, pi 
Soups, Classification of, §9, p3 

Clear, §9, p4 

Cream, §9, pp4, 25 

denoting consistency. Classes of, §9, p4 

Heavy thick, §9, p21 

Thick, §9, p4 

typical of particular countries, §9, pS 
Spanish sauce, §13, pl9 

stew, §11, p22 
Spinach soup, Cream-of-, §9, pl7 
Split-pea puree, §9, p29 
Spring duck, §12, pplO, 32 

lamb, §11, pl3 
Squabs, §12, pp3, 11 
Squirrel, Broiled, §12. p5S 
Standing rib roast, §10, p33 
Steak, Club, §10, p24 

Delmonico, §10, p22 

Flat-bone, §10, p24 

Hamburger, §10. p29 

Hip-bone, §10, p24 

or cutlets. Veal, §11, pS 

Pan-broiled, §10, p27 

Planked, §10, p30 

Porterhouse, §10, p24 

Sauted halibut, §13, p29 

Sirloin, §10, p25 

Skirt, §10, p29 

Stuffing for rolled. §10, p28 

Swiss, §10, p29 

Vegetables served with, §10, p30 
Steaks obtained from the beef loin, §10, 
p22 

obtained from the round, §10, p2S 

Preparation of beef, §10, p22 
Steamed clams. §13, p48 

fish, §13. p22 
Stew, Beef, §10, p38 

Oyster, §13, p44 

Spanish, §11, p22 

Veal, §11, p8 
Stewed eel, §13, p30 

fish, §13, p30 

fresh herring, §13, p30 
Stewing and corning. Beef for, §10, p38 

or simmering, §10. pl4 
Stews and corned beef, Preparation of, 
§10, p38 

Lamb and mutton, §11, p21 
Sticks, Bread, §9, p34 
Stock, Bone, §9, p6 



INDEX 



Stock, First, §9, p6 

Fish, §9, p7 

flavoring, §9, pl2 

for clear soup or bouillon, §9, pl9 

for soup, §9, pS 

Game, §9, p6 

Household, §9, pp6, 19 

Keeping, §9, pl5 

Meaning and use of soup, i|9, p5 

pot, §9, p7 

pot. Food suitable for the, §9, p8 

pot. Nature, use, and care of, ^J, p7 

Second, S9, p6 

Varieties of soup, §9, p6 

Vegetable, §9, p6 

White, §9, p20 
Stocks and clear soups, §9, pl9 
Stomach sweetbread, §11, pi 
Strips, Pastry, §9, p34 

Structure and composition of meat, §10, p3 
Stuffed heart, §10. p43 

veal breast, §11, p7 
Stuffing, Bread, §12, p33 

Chestnut, §12, p34 

Cracker, §12, p33 

for fish, §13, p20 

for roast duck. Liver, §12, p35 

for roast poultry, §12, p33 

for rolled steak, §10, p28 

for veal, §11, p7 

Green-pepper, §12, p34 

Oyster, §12, p34 

Rice, §12, p34 
Suet, Trying out, §10, p44 
Sweetbread croquettes, §11, p43 

Heart, §11, p3 

Stomach, §11, p3 

Throat, §11, p3 
Sweetbreads, §11, p3 

Broiled, §11, p9 

Creamed, §11, p9 

Preparation of, §11, p9 
Swiss steak, §10, p29 

T 

Table for the selection of poultry, §12, pll 
of cuts obtained from a side of beef and 

their uses, §10, p21 
of mutton and lamb cuts, §11, pl7 
of pork cuts, §11, p28 
of veal cuts, §11, p4 
showing composition and food value of 

shell fish, §13, p38 
showing seasons for shell fish, §13, p38 
showing the comparison of fish and meat, 

§13, pS 
showing the names, seasons, and uses 

of fresh fish, §13, p8 
showing the names, seasons, and uses of 

smoked fish, §13, p9 



Tarhonya, §9, p5 

Tenderloin of beef, §10, pp21, 24, 31 

of pork, §11, p27 

of pork. Sauted, §11, p31 
Thick soups, §9, p4 
Thickening soup, §9, pl4 
Thin white sauce, §9, p26 
Throat sweetbread, §11, p3 
Timbale-case batter, §11, p44 

cases, §11, p42 

iron, §11, p44 
Time required for cooking meat, §10, pl5 
Tissue, Connective, §10, p4 
Toast, Minced lamb on, §11, p22 
Tomato bouillon, §9, p21 

sauce, §13, pl9 

sauce, Pork chops and, §11, p31 

soup, Cream-of-, §9, p28 
Tomatoes, Bacon with, §11, p34 
Tongue, Boiled. §10, p42 

Braized, §10, p43 

Pickled, §10, p42 
Trout, Food value of lake, §13, pS 
Trying out suet, §10, p44 
Tuna fish. Creamed, §13, p33 
Turkey hash, §12, p48 

Preparation of, §12, p23 

Roast, §12, p31 
Turkeys, Selection of, §12, p9 
Turkish lamb, §11, p21 

U 
Use of soup stock, §9, p5 

of stock pot, §9, p7 
Uses of beef cuts, §10, p20 

of fresh fish. Table showing the names, 
seasons, and, §13, p8 

of lamb and mutton cuts, §11, pl5 

of smoked fish, Table showing the names, 

seasons, and, §13, p9 

of veal cuts, §11, p2 



Value of fish. Food, §13, p4 

of fish. Relative nutritive, §13, p5 

of meat as food, §10, pi 

of shell fish, Tables showing composition 
and food, §13, p38 

of soup in the meal, §9, p2 
Valves of an oyster, §13, p42 
Varieties and uses of soup stock, §9, p5 

of soup stock, §9, p6 
Veal, Bob, §11, pi 

breast. Stuffed, §11, p7 

chops, §11, p4 

Composition and food value of, §10, p5 

Cooking of, §11, p4 

croquettes, §11, p42 

cuts and their preparation, §11, p4 

cuts and their uses, §11, p2 



INDEX 



Veal cuts, Table of, §11, p4 
cutlets in brown sauce, §11, pS 
Fore quarter of, §11, p3 
Hind quarter of, §11, p3 
Jellied, §11, p8 
kidneys, §11, plO 
Left-over, §11, plO 
Left-over jellied, §11, pll 
Nature of, §11, pi 
on biscuits. Creamed, §11, pll 
organs, §11, pp3, 9 
potpie, §11, p7 
roasts, §11, p6 
rolls, §11, plO 
salad, §11, pll 

steak or cutlets. Pan-broiled. §1 
stew, §11, p8 
Stuffing for, §11, p7 
sweetbreads. Broiled, §11, p9 
sweetbreads. Creamed, §11. p9 
with rice. Scalloped, §11, pll 



Vegetable extracts, §9, p7 

soup with noodles, §9, p24 

stock, §9, p6 
Vegetables served with steak, §10, p30 

used for soup making, §9, plO 
Venison, Broiled, §12, p5S 

Cuts of, §12, pSS 

Roast fillet of, §12, pSS 

Roast leg of, §12, p56 

Sauce for, §12, pS5 

W 

Water in meat, §10, p7 

White stock, §9, p20 

Whitefish, Baked fillet of, §13, p26 

Composition and food value of, §13, p5 
Wing tips of chicken, §12, p23 



Yearling, Meaning of, §11, pl3 
Young, or spring, duck, §12, p32 



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